# All Questions

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### Long term effects of using modafinil on cognition

What are the Long term effects of using stimulant like modafinil on cognition abilty?
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I have this question from wandering how a person, who does not have speech capability or is isolated from people who speaks, could learn how to read? Will a language (A) like English or (B) like ...
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### What is bispectrum?

I am working on a project that uses EEG signals of the brain to identify emotional states. While surveying the literature, I came across several references where "derived features of bispectrum" are ...
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### How does conscious rational internal thought gets initiated - what gives rise to it on any given day?

I'm reading a book called "The power of now" by Ekhart Tolle, and in that book he suggests that internal dialogue/monologue/planning/judging can be first observed, then disidentified with and ...
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### How effective are online providers of paid participants for psychological experiments?

I'm looking for places to recruit participants for online experiments, and in particular, for experiments using Inquisit Web. My lab used to recruit participants through M-Turk but that's no longer an ...
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### Is there a criteria in the design of a cognitive control task (Flanker task with letters H and S)?

In this task, there are 4 trial types : congruent (HHHHHHH, SSSSSSS), incongruent (SSSHSSS, HHHSHHH). In order to collect enough ERN (error-related negativity), a component elicited after an error, ...
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### Why is it so difficult to recall dreams?

You see a dream and wake up during or after it and you remember the dream. Why is it so difficult to remember the dream in the morning, unless you write it down directly when woke up in the night?
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### Can long-term antidepressant use reduce memory and emotion?

Can long-term (~3-4 years) antidepressant use reduce memory and emotion?
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### Research on gift structure and satisfaction: one large gift or two small ones?

I'm familiar with some research into the subject of gift giving, for example Dan Ariely suggests that giving cash is less effective than buying somebody something. Other studies show that money spent ...
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### How do mammals explore state spaces in reinforcement learning tasks?

Reinforcement learning is the act of learning how to preform a task given punishment and reward. A "state-space" is the space of choices in a context. When performing a reinforcement learning task, is ...
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### What neurophysiological mechanisms are typically associated with distraction?

I've been looking into focus aids and I've come across some music which markets itself as entertaining your "limbic system". Although it's been asked before how music can affect mental states, I'm ...
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### Does research support the notion of Mirroring building trust?

Mirroring is the behaviour in which one person subconsciously imitates the gesture, speech pattern, or attitude of another. Has there been any scientific research on the effects of mirroring? If so, ...
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### Are there parts of the brain which don't change over a lifetime?

We know that during our lifetime the brain develops new neural connections and also there is pruning of neural connections. These phenomena together are called neuroplasticity. Is there any research ...
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### Where to find images of the same faces with and without glasses for experiment?

I am looking to replicate the findings of Leder, forster, and Gerger (2011) in their publication of the glasses stereotype revisited. I intend to examine the same conditions of no-glasses, rimmed ...
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### What changes brought into DSM-5 have increased therapeutic use of medications?

Given the controversies surrounding DSM-5, has there been any research into its impact on prescription practice (in the United States)? If so, what are the changes that have resulted in increased use ...
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### How does diet affect OCD?

Background: I have read that caffeine is not a good drink for sufferers of anxiety disorders. This is common sense given that it may increase agitation. I noticed when I started a low carb diet that ...
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### What neurotransmitters can be suppressed/promoted by tDCS

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modify suppression in the visual cortex and GABA suppression in motor control. As of now, the exact neurobiological mechanism that ...
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### Dependancy EEG signals from regions of the brain

When we record an EEG signals , we apply an ICA on it , this algorithm assumes that the sources of signals are independent , could I assume that each region in the brain work independently , i.e the ...
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### Detecting signs of dementia in EEG signal

I would like to know, how dementia can be recognized in the EEG signal of patients with dementia. What I have found so far: According to (Henderson et al., 2006) subjects with dementia are ...
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### What's the purpose of worry [if there is any] and how and why does it affect cognitive skills?

I've read some articles lately about worry and how there are basically two types of worry: one doesn't last long and makes you decide to do something ,solve a problem,act on it the other one last ...
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### How does neurotransmitter distribution and usage vary thought the brain?

I understand that neurotransmitters are used to send signals between neurons in the brain and that some are used for rather specific functions. However, is the exact ...
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### How to work on a research problem while sleeping?

Put it more formally, how to let your mind subconsciously work on a research problem when you are not actively thinking about it, e.g., during sleep, dinner, walking, or shower? Often I hear stories ...
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### What's the difference between divisive and soft normalization?

I know that recursive neural integrators (let me know if I need to clarify this term) can be considers soft normalizers, since their feedback loop means that any stimulus eventually saturates the ...
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### Tendency to see novelty in mundane and trivial statements

There exists a psychological phenomenon whereupon a person may encounter a rather trivial or mundane statement or thought, but would not recognize it as such; instead a person would experience a sense ...
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### What is the most common form of delusional misidentification?

The delusional misidentification syndrome (DMS) is a condition in which a patient consistently misidentifies persons, places, objects, or events. Broome (2004) affirms that: The most common form ...
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### What is the source for the W3C's Contrast Ratio formula?

The Word Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a formula for the contrast ratio of any two arbitrary colors, which they use to set minimum standards for text legibility: ...
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### average attention time and attention compensation time

Is there any good source for statistics regarding average attention span? More specifically- what is the average attention compensation time, meaning- how long does a person need to rest in order to ...
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### Why does clickbait use numbers?

Around the Internet, especially in social media, we see examples of hyperlinks in a common format that has been cynically dubbed "click bait" or "link bait". The idea is that authors publish these ...
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### Does the self-reference effect extend to improved recall of 2nd-person text vs. 3rd-person text?

The self-reference effect has been widely researched in marketing for its ability to improve how favorably consumers remember a message, but less so for its ability to improve recall and learning of ...
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### What brain regions are activated when a dream is remembered?

Some people remember dreams, others don't. The same person can wake up with dream recall one day and without on other days. I know that the association between REM sleep and dreaming was initially ...
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### How does the body experience free-fall during a hypnic jerk

Today I learned that a sudden jerk that you sometimes experience when you are just about to fall asleep due to a sense of free-fall or weightlessness is called a hypnic jerk. If, while sleeping, I ...
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### Is there difference between a memory of a dream and memory of waking experience?

I'm very interested in dreaming and have pretty good dream recall. This makes me able to recall and distinguish hundreds of experience within my memory and label them as "dreams". I'm trying to ...
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### Progress on Arnheim's perceptual forces in vision

In the second edition of Rudolf Arnheim's Art and Visual Perception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye, published in 1974, the opening chapter on "balance" begins with a discussion of "perceptual ...
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### Brainwave audio recordings and beta waves: how do they affect positivity?

I know a little bit about negative and positive energies of human bodies and how it all works. Recently, on Facebook, I saw an ad promoting some sort of audio recording and that it has something to do ...
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### Is there a psychological basis for getting hiccups?

Is getting the hiccups sometimes related to our mental condition, i.e., stress level, etc?
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### Why do certain activities seem to co-occur with well learnt skills?

I have found that when I do certain activities, while engaged with them, I am inclined to do other activities, as well, which come naturally and do not seem to break productivity of the first ones, ...
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### How has psychology categorised different types of love?

How has psychological theory categorised the different types of love? What taxonomies of love are most accepted or useful in psychology? EDIT: I went through Triangular theory of love. Are there any ...
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After my admittedly short research I could not find information which states that if a person is disturbed while their sleeping, let's say in NREM3 phase of their sleep cycle, and wakes up and then ...
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### Spontaneous change of handedness

I read this question Are there benefits to learning to write with your non-dominant hand?. It got me thinking. Disclaimer: This is not a self help question I am using myself to illustrate the ...
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### What is the proper terminology for “hoarding” type paradox (but not extreme)?

Feel free to edit my title -- I'm not exactly how to sum it up in one sentence, THUS my question here: Is there a name or specific terminology related to the somewhat paradoxical situation in this ...
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### Why do power laws describe learning and skill acquisition so well?

In humans, why do powers laws describe skill acquisition? In particular, $$RT = aP^{-b}+c$$ where $RT$ is reaction time and $P$ is amount of practice. Does the power law generalise to learning in ...
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### Can abstract object representations be associated with a wider range of sounds in comparison to everyday object representations?

I'm looking for some peer reviewed evidence that abstract visuals can be associated with a wide range of sounds when compared to more recognisable visual representations pertaining to everyday ...
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### What Quantified Self reserach tools are there for measuring performance while playing videogames?

I've recently became aware that there's a whole field of quantified self - using various methodology to collect data about human performance in an attempt to "quantify" how the human body/brain works. ...
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### Short term time perception affect long term time perception?

It is known that attending to time (i.e. looking at duration) expands subjective time. So if I want to do something for 20 minutes and look at my watch, this would increase my subjective time ...
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### Predicting the Duration of Future Events

I am interested in the question of how people use/integrate previous experiences with instances of tasks or events to make predictions about the duration of future instances of tasks/events. To ...
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### In what order do people notice another person's attributes (race, age, gender, etc.)

I seem to recall reading some research years ago about what people notice in the first second or so of seeing someone else, and in what order they notice those things. It's something like gender, ...
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### What regulates the strength of motoric signals?

I've seen cognitive/roboter models where the input signals from the sensors are directly used as the signal for outgoing motoric control. This doesn't make much sense, because obviously we're able ...
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### Why does appreciation make us happy?

Why does one crave facebook likes or a pat on the back. Our actions are always governed by this phenomenon, and I don't understand why.