# All Questions

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### How do mammals explore state spaces in reinforcement learning tasks?

Reinforcement learning is the act of learning how to preform a task given punishment and reward. A "state-space" is the space of choices in a context. When performing a reinforcement learning task, is ...
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### What neurophysiological mechanisms are typically associated with distraction?

I've been looking into focus aids and I've come across some music which markets itself as entertaining your "limbic system". Although it's been asked before how music can affect mental states, I'm ...
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### Are there parts of the brain which don't change over a lifetime?

We know that during our lifetime the brain develops new neural connections and also there is pruning of neural connections. These phenomena together are called neuroplasticity. Is there any research ...
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### What are other methods to induce ego depletion besides using emotional videos and thought suppression?

Muraven and Baumeister (2000) proposed that self-control is a limited resource akin to strength or a muscle, to deplete this limited resource leads to subsequent self-regulatory failure. Ego ...
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### Comparative functional neuroanatomy: humans & octopodes

Cephalopod brains are toroidal (high surface area to volume ratios!), with the esophagus passing through the, uh, donut hole; octopodes are very intelligent, particularly spatially. Where can I find ...
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### What changes brought into DSM-5 have increased therapeutic use of medications?

Given the controversies surrounding DSM-5, has there been any research into its impact on prescription practice (in the United States)? If so, what are the changes that have resulted in increased use ...
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### How does diet affect OCD?

Background: I have read that caffeine is not a good drink for sufferers of anxiety disorders. This is common sense given that it may increase agitation. I noticed when I started a low carb diet that ...
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### What neurotransmitters can be suppressed/promoted by tDCS

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modify suppression in the visual cortex and GABA suppression in motor control. As of now, the exact neurobiological mechanism that ...
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### Dependancy EEG signals from regions of the brain

When we record an EEG signals , we apply an ICA on it , this algorithm assumes that the sources of signals are independent , could I assume that each region in the brain work independently , i.e the ...
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### Gender differences in IQ among undergraduate psychology students

While marking undergraduate coursework relating to gender differences, it occurred to me that there could well be systematic effects of gender on IQ/cognitive ability among the undergraduate ...
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### Why is it so problematic to read in a dream?

Many activities are possible in dreams, but reading (and related tasks) is not one of them. In an dream with awareness, trying to read a label or enter a phone number can be very frustrating and can ...
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### Detecting signs of dementia in EEG signal

I would like to know, how dementia can be recognized in the EEG signal of patients with dementia. What I have found so far: According to (Henderson et al., 2006) subjects with dementia are ...
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### Influence of antidepressant drugs upon personality

How do antidepressant drugs influence someone's personality? Do they induce a major change in an individual's personality, or do they just negate the influence of depression? Basically, is the ...
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### How does neurotransmitter distribution and usage vary thought the brain?

I understand that neurotransmitters are used to send signals between neurons in the brain and that some are used for rather specific functions. However, is the exact ...
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### How to work on a research problem while sleeping?

Put it more formally, how to let your mind subconsciously work on a research problem when you are not actively thinking about it, e.g., during sleep, dinner, walking, or shower? Often I hear stories ...
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### What's the difference between divisive and soft normalization?

I know that recursive neural integrators (let me know if I need to clarify this term) can be considers soft normalizers, since their feedback loop means that any stimulus eventually saturates the ...
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### Tendency to see novelty in mundane and trivial statements

There exists a psychological phenomenon whereupon a person may encounter a rather trivial or mundane statement or thought, but would not recognize it as such; instead a person would experience a sense ...
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### What is the most common form of delusional misidentification?

The delusional misidentification syndrome (DMS) is a condition in which a patient consistently misidentifies persons, places, objects, or events. Broome (2004) affirms that: The most common form ...
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### What is the source for the W3C's Contrast Ratio formula?

The Word Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a formula for the contrast ratio of any two arbitrary colors, which they use to set minimum standards for text legibility: ...
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### average attention time and attention compensation time

Is there any good source for statistics regarding average attention span? More specifically- what is the average attention compensation time, meaning- how long does a person need to rest in order to ...
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### Why does clickbait use numbers?

Around the Internet, especially in social media, we see examples of hyperlinks in a common format that has been cynically dubbed "click bait" or "link bait". The idea is that authors publish these ...
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### Does limiting mental activity during the day increase mental performance later in the day?

Is there any scientific evidence to support the idea that you only have so much cognitive energy in a given day; and if so, would the mental abilities of someone who focuses on as little as possible ...
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### What brain regions are activated when a dream is remembered?

Some people remember dreams, others don't. The same person can wake up with dream recall one day and without on other days. I know that the association between REM sleep and dreaming was initially ...
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### Evidence for a 2-component framework of visual attention distribution

As part of my bachelor thesis on eyetracking-based gaze guidance, I've done quite a bit of reading (again) on visual attention and visual attention distribution. What caught my attention (haha) ...
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### Is there difference between a memory of a dream and memory of waking experience?

I'm very interested in dreaming and have pretty good dream recall. This makes me able to recall and distinguish hundreds of experience within my memory and label them as "dreams". I'm trying to ...
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### Progress on Arnheim's perceptual forces in vision

In the second edition of Rudolf Arnheim's Art and Visual Perception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye, published in 1974, the opening chapter on "balance" begins with a discussion of "perceptual ...
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### How are sexual cues known by the brain?

Sexual cues have been well established in evolutionary psychology as indicators of genetic compatibility/useful genes. How does the human brain know that a cue is an indicator of a useful trait in ...
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### Book review for “Qualitative Mathematics for the Social Sciences”

Has anyone read/reviewed this book - Qualitative Mathematics for the Social Sciences? I have been trying to find a credible review on the reliability of the book.
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### How has psychology categorised different types of love?

How has psychological theory categorised the different types of love? What taxonomies of love are most accepted or useful in psychology? EDIT: I went through Triangular theory of love. Are there any ...
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After my admittedly short research I could not find information which states that if a person is disturbed while their sleeping, let's say in NREM3 phase of their sleep cycle, and wakes up and then ...
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### Spontaneous change of handedness

I read this question Are there benefits to learning to write with your non-dominant hand?. It got me thinking. Disclaimer: This is not a self help question I am using myself to illustrate the ...
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### What is the proper terminology for “hoarding” type paradox (but not extreme)?

Feel free to edit my title -- I'm not exactly how to sum it up in one sentence, THUS my question here: Is there a name or specific terminology related to the somewhat paradoxical situation in this ...
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### Why do power laws describe learning and skill acquisition so well?

In humans, why do powers laws describe skill acquisition? In particular, $$RT = aP^{-b}+c$$ where $RT$ is reaction time and $P$ is amount of practice. Does the power law generalise to learning in ...
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### Can abstract object representations be associated with a wider range of sounds in comparison to everyday object representations?

I'm looking for some peer reviewed evidence that abstract visuals can be associated with a wide range of sounds when compared to more recognisable visual representations pertaining to everyday ...
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### What Quantified Self reserach tools are there for measuring performance while playing videogames?

I've recently became aware that there's a whole field of quantified self - using various methodology to collect data about human performance in an attempt to "quantify" how the human body/brain works. ...
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### Short term time perception affect long term time perception?

It is known that attending to time (i.e. looking at duration) expands subjective time. So if I want to do something for 20 minutes and look at my watch, this would increase my subjective time ...
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### Predicting the Duration of Future Events

I am interested in the question of how people use/integrate previous experiences with instances of tasks or events to make predictions about the duration of future instances of tasks/events. To ...
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### In what order do people notice another person's attributes (race, age, gender, etc.)

I seem to recall reading some research years ago about what people notice in the first second or so of seeing someone else, and in what order they notice those things. It's something like gender, ...
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### What regulates the strength of motoric signals?

I've seen cognitive/roboter models where the input signals from the sensors are directly used as the signal for outgoing motoric control. This doesn't make much sense, because obviously we're able ...
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### What is the best way to learn in an environment that only has delayed feedback?

There are some skills that take a lot of time to learn because feedback is delayed. Examples I have in mind are weightlifting, healthy eating, and mindfulness. The promised effects of practicing these ...
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### Why does “six months” seem like a “long time” even when it isn't?

Background: I had a (rental) property that I was planning to put up for sale. Then I "changed my mind" and said that I wanted to wait for the current year's appreciation, and sell in "six months" ...
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### Ability to learn math and age of children

Is age of children strongly related to ability to learn various mathematical topics (e.g., percentages, common fractions)? I ask because many students in the elementary grades struggle with math ...
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Two questions, (im trying to get my head around this area of study, my assignment is on neurophysiological differences of t/f memory not theories, but reading up on the topic has had me thinking and I ...
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### Theory about use of concept maps?

My background is Computing Science and I want to research how people use concept maps? By doing some google search I found the following link https://www.msu.edu/~luckie/ctools/ What I want to ...
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### Evidence for different learning applied to negative and positive feedback

I was consulting a friend of mine while building a cognitive model for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task and he mentioned that it's important to note that people respond differently to to positive ...
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### What makes disengaged participants tired / exhausted after corporate meetings?

Why do disengaged people feel tired, fatigued or unfocused after long, "boring" corporate style meetings? (there is an agenda, but not everyone participates?) Over the years I've observed dozens of ...
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### What's the difference between simultanagnosia and neurological extinction?

Both of these terms describe the inability to perceive more than one object at a time. I'm not too sure what the big difference is between them. Note that I'm referring to 'extinction' as used in ...
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### Optical illusions : human universal vs environmental influences

It's well known today that the susceptibility to optical illusions are influenced by the environment: multiple studies with the Müller-Lyer illusion conducted in Zambia proved this environmental ...