# All Questions

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### Are there any serious neuroscientific theories of emotional valence?

Could anyone tell me if there are any serious neuroscientific mechanisms that have been proposed to explain how feelings of body states take on a positive or negative character (valence)? An example ...
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### What is the difference between cognition and artificial intelligence in the context of robotics?

A lot of research work is being conducted on artificial intelligence and robotics. Terms like cognitive robotics are used. What is the difference between cognitive robotics and artificial intelligence ...
183 views

### Why do we rely on others in dangerous situations?

*This question is based on my observations. Q: What is the reason people trust their peers implicitly in extreme (or not) situations? Example: I am walking with a friend, and I am telling him ...
33 views

### Why past events reappear in dreams after a certain delay?

I know that Freud in his "Interpretation of dreams" provides a number of examples of events influencing dreams several days to several months after the event has occurred. For example, a person sees a ...
49 views

### How many items do I need to design a measure?

I have to design my own psychometric test to measure a construct. I have a construct, but part of the requirement is to include a rationale for the number of items in the instrument, which I don't ...
247 views

### Can anxiety cause a heart attack, black-out or insanity?

David Burns in his self-help book about overcoming depression, anxiety and interpersonal problems called The Feeling Good Handbook¹ states: ...neurotic anxiety results from distorted thoughts that ...
42 views

### 3D Glasses Aftereffect

I am wearing a pair a 3D glasses. The left lens is red and the right lens is cyan. However, when I take them off, my left eye sees in cyan and my right eye sees in red, the complete opposite of the ...
26 views

### What makes a sight or an image mesmerizing and irresistible?

There are some examples of this. What makes us: Feel we just HAVE TO watch that video or an image again, it's common with comedy videos Feel we need to stare at a such a beautiful sight, a person ...
241 views

### Is it possible to permanently improve long-term memory?

Many similar questions here ask either about working or short-term memory, or about various tricks and techniques to efficiently remember information. My question is, is it possible to improve the ...
123 views

### Can a strong lack of empathy be considered a disorder?

Premise from Wikipedia: More recently, popular science writer and Psychologist Daniel Goleman has drawn on social neuroscience research to propose that social intelligence is made up of social ...
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### Overview of Pitts & McCullough (1943) “A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in nervous activity”

Is there a good tutorial or simplified overview of the paper, 'Logical calculus for nervous activity' (McCullough & Pitts, 1943)? Reference McCullough, W. S., & Pitts, W. (1943). A logical ...
113 views

### Elaboration likelihood model: would attractiveness be a peripheral or central route?

In the elaboration likelihood model, if an advertisement contains an attractive person, would this be using the central route or peripheral route? I would guess it would be peripheral route, since ...
56 views

### Research on properties of effective feedback

I've been searching everywhere I know of for research concerning the topics listed below, but have been unable to find anything. The best I can come up with is general literature on feedback. ...
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### Why do I get smaller accuracy when I use 80% of training sets using HMAX model?

I am trying to compute the accuracy of the HMAX model. I am using the Face category (containing 435 images) from the Caltech101 database. I split it into $x$ ...
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### Is there an easy way to tell whether I woke up during REM or non-REM sleep?

I wake up during the night. Is there an easy way to tell whether I've woken up during REM or non-REM sleep? One way could be to look up the time, calculate how long I've slept and then take into ...
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### What is the current consensus on if fMRI studies in blood flow actually match brain activity?

How good is blood flow (BOLD signal) as a measure of actual neural activity? What deficiencies exist?
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### Is there any evidence to suggest telling puns to a child makes them enjoy it when they are older?

My own experience was that my father and grandfather retold many puns as I was in my childhood and teens; at the time, I thought it was abysmal. Now I think they're the funniest things ever. Is ...
48 views

### What is psychological basis of the great love parents have for their children?

Why is it that the parents, specially the mother, generally have this unmatched love for their children? What is the psychological reason behind it? Is it more biological than psychological?
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### How does the brain learn abstract maths?

I have found quite a bit of information of how, on a neurological level, we learn the most basic forms of maths. We seem to be hardwired from the get go, to deal with manageable quantities, can ...
56 views

### How does belief in souls or the afterlife influence emotions related to the death of others?

Background: Once when I heard of a death in my locality, I was happy rather than feeling grief because I was thinking that the soul of that dead person has achieved the truth. How does belief in ...
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### Is it truly necessary to upgrade Tononi's criteria of consciousness in the Integrated Information theory?

I am referring specifically to a very recent paper by Max Tegmark. In this paper he proposes 3 more criteria (independence, dynamics, and utility principle) in addition to Tononi's original criteria ...
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### At what point in our life do we know what is real?

Is "real" or reality defined during childhood, or as adults? Is this caused by age, or an event?
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### How to best prepare the mind for a problem identification brainstorm?

I am a manager of a team of software engineers. We often use brainstorming sessions to generate solutions to problems. We use typical cognitive games, e.g. word association, to "warm-up" and ...
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### Is there a way to hasten recovery from sleep inertia?

Sleep inertia is a transitional state of lowered arousal occurring immediately after awakening from sleep and producing a temporary decrement in subsequent performance. (1) There is study ...
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I am wondering, is there any research or just reasoning over whether a human perceives text easier if it is in questions and answers format or if it is structured with headings and sub-headings. ...
808 views

### Sadistic personality disorder, psychopathy and correlation with violence

Going through some article, it seems the differences between the descriptions for sadistic personality disorder and psychopathy is minimal, if at all existent. In the first article it appears the ...
150 views

### How to interpret HLM analyses looking at work group and individual worker effects?

Liden et al (2004, PDF) is an example of a study examining employees in work groups in an organisation. Thus, measures are obtained of both individual workers and of the work groups that they belong ...
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### What contextual links would make full-text journal articles more useful? [closed]

After searching PubMed or Google Scholar researchers often arrive at a publisher's full-text article page. Assuming that you have access to the full-text access, what contextual links should be ...
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### Connection between defence mechanisms and personality disorders?

Is there connection between defence mechanisms and personality disorders? If there are, I would like an example of relation between them. How do they affect structure and dynamics of personality?
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### What evidence is there for a correlation between being tightly focused on a problem and only using one part of your brain?

I've seen people tightly focused on a problem, in a state of 'flow' and when you break out of it there seems to be a couple of seconds of confusion when they adjust to the circumstances at hand. It is ...
21 views

### Number of exercises and the learning of some subject?

For example, I show to my students that XY=Z, so I ask for them to do some exercises, so in the future, they will always know that XY=Z. Is there any known study relating the numbers of exercises ...
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### Research on computational models of physiological mechanisms in affective neuroscience at a biochemical level

As computational neuroscience has the mainstream on single neuron/network modelling for biochemical aspect, and computational modelling of physiological mechanism of hippocampus for analytic study of ...
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### sources on ethical replication of pain for testing effects on cognitive functions

I have devised a study that may provide an ethical way to invoke similar behaviours in participants, as those demonstrated by individuals in pain. Obviously it is extremely hard to correctly test ...
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### What is a short, drug-induced “blackout” experience called?

I know of anecdotal evidence for the following drug-related side-effects: It can happen while getting used to a new drug, or when quitting a drug. Probably also some other situations. The feeling ...
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This term gets thrown around quite a lot on cogsci.SE. States (or maybe, to my understanding, states of mind, psychological states, or mental states) could be defined as schemas of a temporal nature ...
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### Any research on a concept of 'empathetic preferences' used in economics?

Some economists/political scientists/philosophers (it's sometimes hard to classify them) have used in their theories a concept of "empathetic preferences", also known as "extended sympathy ...
31 views

### Research on avoiding thinking about things that trigger depression or anxiety

Has there been study done in regards to the phenomenon of avoiding thinking about things that would emotionally trigger depression or anxiety? What I mean is, a person will think about something ...
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### Which personality trait(s) characterize high need for external validation?

Some background to explain my question: I recently overheard a conversation, between two men working in the same firm. One of them(A) is thinking about finding a new job, as he is not happy where he ...
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### Is fear of parasites an explanation for trypophobia?

Trypophobia is the alleged pathological fear of objects with irregular patterns of holes, such as beehives, ant hills and lotus seed heads. I find some sample pictures that relevant to ...
39 views

### Name of cognitive effect where you know that your first thought is wrong but you go with it anyway

Sometimes you know a fact about an object or phenomenon, but temporarily forget about it and assume a different, contradicting fact based on a knee-jerk reaction. I witnessed an amusing interaction on ...
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### Can incubation be performed, while, at the same time, being focussed on a problem?

Is it possible to perform incubation as well as consciously think about a problem at the same time, in effect multitasking, in order to learn something, without having to stop and take a break, ...
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### Is desire for certain food anyhow related to actual need for that food?

It appears that from time to time, everybody occurs to have a strong desire for some kind of food. People also are attracted to kinds of food they didn't have in a long while (not so attracted to ones ...
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### Do highly creative people dream more and/or differently than ordinary people?

Everybody dreams, and I'm trying to understand if there is a cause and effect relationship between ability to dream and recall dreams and creativity as an adult. I would define the kind of ...
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I am using nilearn and nipy package for python processing FMRI data. When computing mask, it says: ...
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### Physiological mapping of frustration

What physiological changes are seen in the brain when a person is experiencing frustration? What effects do these changes have on learning? Optional background: I'm trying to figure out an ...
25 views

### If stimulus triggers dopamine release, can dopamine release trigger memory recall of stimulus?

Modern science of sleep is starting to lean towards a viewpoint that dopamine has an important function in dreaming, and that dopaminergic pathways - mesolimbic and mesocortical are activated during ...
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### Why is sunrise therapeutic?

Despite being a night owl, I find when I'm up and about at sunrise1 I feel mentally much better than any other time of day - regardless of how much sleep I've had or whether I've been awake for many ...
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### How many words are toddlers “making up”?

My 20-month old has learned many words to express herself. In addition she says many other words that are indecipherable from context nor pronunciation. It's most noticeable in novel or unusual ...