# All Questions

93 views

### When faced with a choice and trying to make a quick decision, are 2 options better than 3 or more options?

Bastardi & Shafir (1998) show how too much data disabilitates your decision making. There is also the popular Paradox Of Choice argument. However, I can't find a reference stating that, when ...
63 views

### Accuracy of social judgements of observers watching business meetings

I'm very interested in how people size one another up in social situations and in particular what we key in on when we are making these judgements. Let's make an imaginary experiment. I make ...
41 views

### Number of presynaptic inputs per cell in primary visual cortex

I have been digging in the literature lately, but I haven't found a nice answer with clear cut numbers (avg +- std) to this question: How many presynaptic inputs receives a pyramidal cell in primary ...
36 views

### Criteria for evaluating cognitive systems

In the first chapter of the book "How to Build a Brain", Chris Eliasmith quickly establishes some criteria which he will use to evaluate Spaun, the cognitive system described in the book. He describes ...
33 views

### What are the common components of other cognitive architectures and the Semantic Pointer Architecture

In the papers I've read about it, the Semantic Pointer Architecture (SPA) embodied in Spaun is said to be more biologically plausible than many other proposed architectures such as the Neural ...
159 views

### Is ignoring messages a learned behavior?

As someone that works troubleshooting stuff, I've seen a surprising amount of people that, when confronted with messages, warnings and errors, tend to seek help fast (or early in the process) in the ...
111 views

### Is sluggishly progressing schizophrenia recognized outside of Russia?

I've been trying to look up information about sluggishly progressing schizophrenia, but the only source accessible to me was a Wikipedia article, that states that the term “sluggish schizophrenia” was ...
258 views

### Descriptive models of different types of consciousness

In behavioral experiments we get the first-person responses of the participants. The third-person perspective is available through the collected data. There is a second-person perspective collected ...
94 views

### What are the negative effects of meditation?

I see lots of articles touting the benefits of meditation. But what are the bad things about it? Maybe if a person has to make quick decisions, meditation would not be a good thing? This could be ...
59 views

### Are association, conditioning, and symbolic learning the same thing?

Symbols and Communication: At some point in human history, we developed communication. Our brains were able to understand that things stood for something else. For example, the sound we make when we ...
95 views

### What is the relative effectiveness of self initiated versus therapy approaches to repairing damaged body schema?

Several studies discuss the damaged body schema of amputees and people suffering from CRPS. By damaged body schema I mean where the body their mind constructs doesn't match up with the body that is ...
183 views

### How does appreciation for music change over time for the same person?

I know that there's a concept of acquired taste, where a child may find certain tastes, like peppers and beer unappealing until certain age or frequency of exposure. Is there something similar to ...
446 views

### Can scary movies trigger fight or flight and why can a person enjoy this while another does not?

Essentially, I understand the release of adrenaline can be addictive and that scary movies and events are a safe way of experiencing the drama without all the actual mess. but However, if we are ...
139 views

### What does the literature suggest about the optimal strategy for quickly memorizing various types of content?

I just finished reading Moonwalking with Einstein, a journalistic piece on the World Memory Championships. The book explicates the various techniques used by participants to memorize different types ...
61 views

### Are there any theories suggesting mindfulness is the opposite mental state to self-regulation?

Meditation practice focuses on emotional acceptance (Teper & Inzlicht, 2013), and self-regulation is related to emotional control (Braumeister, 2003). Could someone provide me with pointers to ...
59 views

### How does the alpha brain wave frequency range distribute over the population?

Alpha brain waves show up in your EEG when you close your eyes. Alpha waves are brain waves between 8 and 13 Hz. How does this frequency range distribute over a population of people?
30 views

### Why *fractional* anisotropy?

Does anyone know why the FA (fractional anisotropy) measure in diffusion tensor imaging is called "fractional"? I'd have thought "local", i.e. voxel-wise, would have been the correct way to qualify ...
112 views

### Theoretical grounding for Agile/Scrum methodologies in software development

Agile and Scrum methodologies are well known and often studied and written about in software development. But these methodologies are about managing the activities and the workplace itself. Are there ...
30 views

### Does distraction cause us to skip to the next step in a motor plan?

Often, if one is concentrating too hard on a particular task, it seems as though it's quite easy to skip to the next step of a plan of action. For example, a baseball infielder may attempt a throw to ...
56 views

### How do our emotions toward a subject affect our brain activity within similar activities?

I'll bring an example: there are people who love to dance and could do it for hours. Yet, if you'd make them run a long distance they would get tired really soon just because they don't like running ...
156 views

### What is understood about interactions between personality types or traits?

There are several psychological tests based on Jungian typology (e.g., MBTI, Insights & DISC) which extrapolate findings about personality into how those types interact (e.g., interaction styles). ...
78 views

Performance on secondary tasks next to a primary task are sometimes used to assess mental workload (GD Ogden, 1979). For example the Stroop test as a secondary task has been evaluated by Gwizdka, ...
52 views

### What are the common nutritional deficiencies in western countries related to reduced mental performance?

What are the common nutritional deficiencies in western countries related to reduced mental performance ? I've heard about omega 3, folid acid, and vitamin D deficiencies, the last two are now reduced ...
37 views

### Rated model of driving-related processes and objects

The SEEV-Model for predicting the distribution of visual attention contains a parameter called 'value' which represents the importance of a certain area of the field of view concerning a given task ...
488 views

### Cultural brain hypothesis and gene-culture co-evolution

Recently, Joseph Henrich of UBC has been promoting his cultural brain hypothesis. The goal is to explain a selection pressure behind the development of the human brain and general intelligence. The ...
176 views

### What is the distribution of performance in academic programming subjects?

On Programmers SE there is a popular question about scientific evidence for whether some people either are or are not able to program. One person cites an unpublished manuscript by Dehnadi and ...
127 views

I am looking for a specific type of experimental test of active learning. Given some artificial or natural learning task that consists of classifying inputs $x$ from a large input space $X$. There is ...
103 views

### Problems with using personal feedback to motivate participation in an online psychological experiment?

I am planning on running an online psychological experiment where participants must learn about various simulated environments and then make inferences about them. Because completing the experiment ...
64 views

### How to efficiently get a sense of the meaning of a score on a non-aptitude test that you encounter in a journal article?

Context: When reading research articles in psychology, you often encounter new non-aptitude self-report psychological tests (e.g., measures of personality, well-being, psychopathology, learning style, ...
174 views

### How do cooperative vs. competitive activities impact the learning patterns of an individual?

To what extent does cooperative versus competitive learning influence personality development or even pathological behaviors? If these activities need to be narrowed down to a specific category, I'm ...
124 views

### What psychological or sociological concepts form the basis of Principled Negotiation?

Although the various forwards mention that organizational behavior and social psychology are two of the fields that form the basis for the techniques taught at Harvard Law School's Negotiation and ...
250 views

### Refinements of Rescorla-Wagner model of classical conditioning

The Rescorla-Wagner model is one of the most commonly discussed mathematical models of classical conditioning. It was wildly popular when it came out in 1972, and very successful. The same math, is ...
180 views

### What is the neurological basis of maintaining self discipline?

Self Discipline, as defined in this meagre Wikipedia article as being as the ability to motivate oneself in spite of a negative emotion This is partly distinct from self control and willpower ...
94 views

### How much additional sleep is required to recover from a given number of hours of sleep deprivation? [duplicate]

A previous question dealt with whether it is possible to catch up on lost sleep. This question is a little different. Assume that a healthy adult has been deprived of sleep for "x" hours. How much ...
211 views

### Theoretical limit to the use of mental faculty of the brain

A lot of articles stress the importance of having to train the brain (By training the brain, I mean the cognitive faculty of the brain for learning things and not brain's normal functions) since the ...
706 views

### How to explain emoticons to an autistic person?

I am currently chatting in an IRC and there is one girl (i think she's about 18 years old) and she has Asperger syndrome and therefore is unable to understand countenance and feelings. She told me ...
2k views

### Are there any standard tests to measure psychopathy?

While looking into another question on how to measure the adoption of norms, I came to wonder whether there are any standard tests to measure psychopathy. What are the accepted standard tests to ...
9k views

### Why are some people unable to easily memorize the lyrics to a song?

Although I have listened some songs hundred of times I can't sing the lyrics to any of these songs from beginning to end without pauses. However I am able to whistle the whole song without difficulty. ...
247 views

### How would synapses behave if resting potential was zero?

Assuming that the resting potential is zero and the other mechanisms were exactly the same, how would it affect the generation of spikes in terms of excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic ...
690 views

### Is variation in human brain size related to mental functioning?

It seems that the head size of human beings has evolved to be relatively similar, yet there is still some amount of variation. While I'm sure the correlation is not absolute, I read that larger heads ...
226 views

### Why does your recorded or objective voice sound different to what you hear in your own head?

When speaking, I hear my own voice very differently from how others do and from what it really is. The sound differs in tone, pitch, volume, etc. For example, recordings of my singing or speaking in ...
190 views

### Are closed eye movements related to the content of dreams or the imagination?

During rem sleep there are observed eye movements, which seem like they would correlate with the person visualizing their dreams. Do their eye movements actually try to follow what they're dreaming ...
192 views

### How do memories come up for no apparent reason? Is this evidence that we remember everything?

As I was driving, all of a sudden the name "Holden Caufield" came to my mind. It sounded really familiar. I googled the name and it was the main character in The Catcher in the Rye. The last time I ...
2k views

### Why do some people only work well under pressure?

It is common for people to procrastinate. Putting off tasks until the resulting deadlines get closer and there comes a point at which the person will fire into action. (whether this point leaves ...
156 views

### How can surprise be labelled conscious when mismatch negativity shows that surprise takes place earlier than conscious states?

Mismatch negativity (MMN) is the brain response to violations of a rule. The MMN peaks at about 100–250 ms after change onset. If MMN occurs so early, before conscious perception, why is surprise ...
2k views

### Training for the corpus callosum?

Since reading is done in the left hemisphere of the brain, does reading text in the left visual field train the corpus callosum? For instance, I am interested in knowing whether training may lead to ...
130 views

### Do humans mentally discretize numbers?

It seems reasonable to me that humans discretize numbers: this number is bigger than than number, or when faced with a series of numbers that range from 0 - 100, 50 is "middling", 10 is "low" and 90 ...
2k views

### Why does a stuffed up nose clear up momentarily when the person having it is startled or has an orgasm?

I have experienced this phenomena many, many times and I'm sure it's not only me. I guess the sudden rise in arousal opens up the nostrils in a kind of fight or flight response, but I'm interested in ...