The study of what actions an agent should take in a stochastic environment in order to maximize a cumulative reward.

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110 views

What's the relation between firing of dopaminergic neurons and dopamine dispersion in terms of neurophysiological processes?

Question: How does the firing of dopaminergic neurons affect the dispersal of dopamine? Evidence of my limited familiarity with dopaminergic neurons and motivation for asking the question: Most of ...
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2answers
73 views

Cognitive Models of learning Working Memory usage

Recently in deep learning, there's been a surge in learning how to use memories as part of the optimisation process (i.e. LSTM's and Stacks). However, these aren't really analogous to how a cognitive ...
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1answer
331 views

Refinements of Rescorla-Wagner model of classical conditioning

The Rescorla-Wagner model is one of the most commonly discussed mathematical models of classical conditioning. It was wildly popular when it came out in 1972, and very successful. The same math, is ...
2
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1answer
25 views

How do reward signals strengthen synaptic connections in the human brain?

In a vast simplification, the mid-brain sends reward signals (for example through dopaminergic neurons) that tell the rest of the brain whether it succeeded at fulfilling the needs of the organism. If ...
5
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1answer
99 views

Evolutionary motivation for the existence of pleasure?

It seems like pleasure goes beyond needs. What is its purpose? Is it supposed to make you not do anything, because of how good you feel? Are there animals that don't feel pleasure, but only have needs ...
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0answers
12 views

Reinforcement learning for combining production rules

I'm trying to create a system that learns the Tower of Hanoi puzzle. The system I'm working off of uses a production system (similar to ACT-R), but uses hard-coded production rules. I know that Neil ...
10
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1answer
82 views

What's the optimal way to space out rewards in order to maximise motivation?

I'm working on an educational product, and we're thinking of introducing some gamified aspects to motivate students to use the product. One of these will be the concept of 'levels' - when a student ...
10
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0answers
1k views

How does goal-tracking and sign-tracking behaviour vary across species?

In Pavlonian (classical) conditioning, conditioned responses of an animal may vary. Some animals focus on the unconditioned stimulus (ie., food / location of food) while others may focus on the ...
9
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1answer
230 views

'Model-free' learning in humans

In reinforcement learning, there is a stark distinction between model-based and model-free learning algorithms, where model-free methods don't make use any explicit information about the dynamics of ...
10
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1answer
94 views

What salient features of a {conditioned stimulus,unconditioned stimulus} pair are represented in the lateral amygdala?

In classical conditioning, a conditioned stimulus (CS, e.g., a tone) is presented just before an unconditioned stimulus (UCS, e.g., a mild toe pinch) in repeated trials, such that the CS will ...
3
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2answers
59 views

How do humans learn to combine tasks?

I've been reading about hierarchical learning (a variant of reinforcement learning from what I understand) and how it is shown to allow learning of a higher-level task (the main example is assembly). ...
2
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0answers
20 views

Evidence for different learning applied to negative and positive feedback [duplicate]

I was consulting a friend of mine while building a cognitive model for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task and he mentioned that it's important to note that people respond differently to to positive ...
6
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1answer
94 views

What is an acquired taste?

Some foods are delicious. People love eating them, and the experience has a positive reinforcement. Thus, people will eat the food again. Some foods are instead "challenging", at least initially. For ...
8
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1answer
287 views

Evidence that positive rewards are learnt faster than negative rewards?

Its folk psychology wisdom that its easier to reward positive behavior than punish negative behavior (e.g. any book on parenting or dog training), but is there any evidence in the cognitive science ...
3
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0answers
43 views

How do mammals explore state spaces in reinforcement learning tasks?

Reinforcement learning is the act of learning how to preform a task given punishment and reward. A "state-space" is the space of choices in a context. When performing a reinforcement learning task, is ...
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0answers
17 views

Brain areas active while learning hierarchical structure of a problem

There are multiple examples in the machine learning literature of trying to learn the hierarchical structure of a reinforcement learning problem, however have there been any papers tying this learning ...
7
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0answers
190 views

Why has behaviourism fallen out of favour?

Despite the catchy title, I'm not interested in personal opinions here. I am however, interested in feedback on how to better phrase the question so as to avoid personal opinions. After some thought,...
4
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0answers
36 views

Frequency estimation in binary prediction task

In a binary prediction task, people often match choice probabilities to outcome probabilities (a phenomenon known as probability matching). However, under certain circumstances (eg, existence of a ...
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1answer
83 views

What evidence is there to suggest that delayed gratification is taught and learned and not genetic?

Every evening I spend considerable time and energy trying to get my kids to eat their dinner, holding off treats such as chips or dessert. My experience was that my parents did the same. I have ...
0
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1answer
482 views

What causes behavioural inhibition?

There are obvious consequences that prevent people from behaving anti-socially or criminally. However there are many behaviours that are within the bounds of social norms, yet there seems to be some "...
2
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1answer
56 views

Is it possible to create an inhibition against some activities?

There is an unexplained psychological reason that causes one not to be able to do some random activities (for instance, not being able to eat several days because one's mouth just won't open to take ...
10
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1answer
226 views

Are there any connectionist models that integrate reinforcement and fully supervised learning?

I've been working on modeling some phenomena involving real-time control in an environment with inherent rewards (specifically, playing a 'pong'-like game), and it's increasingly looking like ...