For questions about the biology of the nervous system, from a macroscopic to microscopic perspective.

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Publicly Available NEURON models

NEURON is a software package for simulating neurons and networks in great detail. Although it's quite easy to find papers that use NEURON with a simple Google Scholar search, is there some way to find ...
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4answers
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What are the rules that govern neuron behavior?

This is what I know so far: Neurons are nodes with a number called the threshold. Neurons are connected to other neurons through directed axons. Axons take the signals produced by neurons and ...
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2answers
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If orgasm triggers bonding and feelings of love, why don't people continue to stay in love?

I am a bit confused by the effects of orgasm in bonding; everything I seem to read seems to be a bit careless with the truth and does not mention why people fall out of love or why people who are in ...
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1answer
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When does reward occur? When dopamine is released or when it is binded?

I know this is a silly question, but I'm curious as to what is the exact phase when we experience of the thrill of doing an exciting activity. I believe this briefly describes the whole process. So, ...
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39 views

What is input resistance and how to interpret its values?

For example, this site gives a distribution of values of the input resistance of various cells. The values are in MOhms. The definition says that "input resistance measured at steady-state voltage ...
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1answer
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How far can a signal travel in the neocortex without passing through the white matter?

Correct me if I am wrong please, from what I understand horizontal communication spans very short distance in all layers of the neocortex but layers I and II. In these two layers dendrites and axons ...
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When we say signals go from one cortical area to an other one do we mean they go directly without going through the thalamus for example?

Or is it implied signals always have to go back and forth between the thalamus and the cortex? Or is it possible they do both at the same time? Or maybe for areas next to each others they can go ...
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1answer
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During synchronized waves oscillation (alpha beta etc…) do neurons fire only once for each wave cycle?

Or can they fire few times then pause and again, firefew times and pause periodically? If the second case happens then do we know if the neurons that fire in synchronity fire the same number of ...
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Do gating mechanisms in the neocortex have individual degrees for all gated connections?

For example, the upward connection between layers in the neocortex flows through the Thalamus which is assumed to have a gating function. I wonder whether there is a single value per gate, ...
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Infants tend to look longer at novel stimuli than at repeated stimuli, is this true in adults?

I have recently read an article in which it is stated, that the researchers can discriminate if a baby knows an object, by looking at the length of time the baby looks at the object. Do adults also ...
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0answers
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How can higher concepts get unrolled with upward and feedback connections differing?

In the neocortex, input patterns are compressed hierarchically. Sensory inputs in the lower levels are combined by higher levels to form abstract concepts. However, there are even more feedback ...
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1answer
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Is touch sensitivity higher for females?

I read a long time ago that in a study of two-week old infants response to touch, the female babies were far and away more sensitive. In most gender comparisons, there are the familiar "two humps" in ...
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What is the difference between 'stereoscopic depth' and 'crossed/uncrossed disparity'?

What is the difference between stereoscopic depth and crossed/uncrossed disparity, and specifically in terms of their use in the methods to manipulate visual stimuli to investigate depth-perception?
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What causes dopamine in our body [closed]

I was curious as to know what are the natural causes for the secretion of dopamine in our body. Are there any specific foods that increases the dopamine level? It is said that dopamine are usually ...
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1answer
47 views

Is the heart conscious?

I have read that our heart can think like our brain. Of course it doesn't have complete functionality of brain but it has its own consciousness. Is it true?
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3answers
94 views

Which parts of the brain are affected by dopamine?

Does dopamine spread and interact across the whole brain? If not, which areas are affected most and which least?
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Is k-winner a biological plausible model of inhibition?

In the Leabra cognitive architecture, sparse representations are created by simply ignoring all but the k strongest activations, if I understand correctly. In Hierarchical Temporal Memory, instead, ...
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1answer
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How do neuro transmitters interact with neurons in the brain?

I think emotions and hormones frames the overall thinking processes of the brain. However, I'm interested in how this works on a neuronal level. For example, dopamine is some kind of reward signal for ...
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1answer
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What is the definition of a receptive field?

I have read the wikipedia article on receptive fields (RFs). There, a receptive field is defined as: The receptive field of an individual sensory neuron is the particular region of the sensory ...
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1answer
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What is the location of the center-surround receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells?

I have read wikipedia article about receptive fields of visual system and it states the following: The receptive field is often identified as the region of the retina where the action of light ...
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1answer
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Can two neurons in the brain be connected more than once?

Can two given neurons in the human brain can be directly connected more than once, either mutually or in the same or direction? Also, can the same neuron have transitive connections to itself (in ...
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2answers
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Are axons in the brain weighted?

Is it known whether the connection strength of synapses is important to the functioning of the brain or does just the binary existence of a synapse matter? Also, how widely do the strengths of ...
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2answers
100 views

How would the blind experience a hallucinogen like LSD?

I have heard that LSD allows you to see ridiculous things. But they are things that you have seen, or can imagine to see. If you've never seen before (like a blind person), what effect will LSD have ...
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1answer
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How large is a neurotransmitter? Max and min sizes?

What size(s) are neurotransmitters? What is their size relative to the synaptic cleft? Relatively speaking, can we tell how far they must travel to cross the gap? Twice their own length? More? I ...
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Is there a disorder that causes one to feel heat from an inanimate object? [closed]

We just met a woman that feels heat (literally, hot enough for her to say she was burned) from inanimate objects. She says it is mainly the floors and chairs in her home, and she is unable to walk in ...
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2answers
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How useful are neural circuits in psychology?

We can identify many kinds of patterns of how neurons connect such as lateral inhibition, negative/positive feedback, convergence, divergence, and facilitation. But have any of these circuits been ...
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1answer
37 views

Is there any way to calculate the cumulative width of synaptic clefts?

It's my understanding there are 150 trillion synapses in the human brain (give or take). Is there a way to calculate the cumulative width of all synaptic clefts associated with the synapses? I would ...
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1answer
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Where can I find good references about the neuronal connections in various areas in the cortex?

As an example, I would like to know which Brodmann areas innervate the layer IV of area 10 in the brain. To which degree are these connections known? What are good books or other kinds of resources ...
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1answer
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What are the estimates in total neurons and average connections per neuron for each of the processing areas of the visual cortex?

I am trying to find ballpark estimates for the number of neurons in each functional area of the visual cortex (V1, V2, V3, etc). While nice if known, the numbers themselves are not as important to me ...
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4answers
282 views

Is it possible to increase the capacity of human brain like “Lucy”?

I saw the film "Lucy" in 2015. The film says that humans can use 100% percent of the capacity of their brains. According to my personal ideas, the capacity of the brain will changed based on the ...
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1answer
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Do dissolving myelinated connections explain learning?

In order to understand how we get rid of established habits/behavior: Can myelinated connections be dissolved or are new connections created that bypass those connections?
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Are there specific neurotransmitters for specific sensations?

Nerves can detect pressure, temperature, light (eyes), sound, friction- at least. Does each sensation have its own neurotransmitter? I'm only a little familiar with neurotransmitters. This page ...
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1answer
62 views

Can dendrite spines fire action potential toward the soma?

I am confused about how the signal propagates from the dendrite spines toward the soma. I believe it is commonly taught that the signal diffuses "passively", i.e. electrostatically with no ...
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How much of brain power consumption is for information

As previously answered on this site, the brain uses 20W of power. However, how much of this power consumption is for information processing and how much of it is for maintenance of biological ...
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1answer
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What is forward masking

I am trying to understand what is visual masking (or more specificaly forward masking). I have read the explanation here, but still.. I understand that a background can interfere with a frontal ...
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1answer
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Where are intrinsically bursting neurons found in the mammalian brain?

There are neurons in the brain that exhibit bursting behaviour. In some cases, this is due to interactions with the surrounding neural network. In other cases, it is due to intrinsic biological ...
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1answer
119 views

Threshold time for stimulus to be consciously perceived. Why?

A visual stimulus must last longer than some threshold duration to be perceived consciously. For example, a light dot flashed for a duration of 10ms can't be consciously perceived. Why? What prevents ...
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1answer
91 views

link between top-down (bottom-up) processing and cortex layers

What are the relations between top-down and bottom-up processings and the flows of information in the brain? For example, does top-down processing start from some layers and go to lower layers? If so ...
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0answers
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Where is neurogenesis absent/uncommon in the human brain? [duplicate]

I know that neurogenesis is an integral part of hippocampus, however are there parts of the brain where neurogenesis never or rarely happens? I'm assuming that any part of the brain stem does not have ...
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0answers
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Neurotransmitter detection in the brain

How are the effects of drugs in the brain, in terms of neurotransmitters measured? For example, Selective Seretonin Reuptake Inhibitors are a class of anti-depressants. How was and is this type of ...
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0answers
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What is the general frequency (or range of frequencies) of “sparks” in the human brain per minute and at what locations? [closed]

How many electrical sparks occur in the brain, on average, per minute and at what structures do they occur? For the "how many" figure, I would be happy to have ranges here from relaxed to excited ...
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1answer
58 views

How exactly do “you” think and interact with your body?

It has been established that our brains control many processes that your body carries out autonomously and involuntarily. However, other actions are controlled by you. (e.g. you lift an arm, you walk)....
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1answer
116 views

How to build a high sensitivity EEG headset for continual monitoring?

After having a conversation with a couple of the more popular "consumer" level EEG makers such as Versus, I have found that their monitoring abilities are either ...
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1answer
195 views

How many possible states does a brain have?

Suppose I have a box, inside of which is a light which can be either on or off: it has exactly two states. Suppose I wanted to take some "snapshot" of the state of this device, and store all the ...
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2answers
65 views

How long does it take for electrical impulses from neurons to travel in the human brain?

Consider the maximal distance between two separated areas in the human brain. How fast can information via neuronal excitement travel between these two locations?
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1answer
103 views

Quit smoking supported by mental training

Given that mental training/workout releases acetylcholine (something I read in a popular-scientific book and on Wiki, see also below) , and that acetylcholine and nicotine bind to the same receptors. ...
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1answer
267 views

How much power, in watts, does the brain use?

When IBM's Watson won on Jeopardy a few years ago, it did so using a room full of servers with a cooling system and a fat power feed, competing against a couple of humans powered by the equivalent of ...
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0answers
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How separate are the left and right hemisphere vasculature?

It appears as if there are communicating arteries between the right and left hemispheres of the brain, but it is difficult to grasp the larger picture. To what extent is the blood supply to each ...
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1answer
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Are there studies on the effect of nicotine patches on dream vividness and dream recall?

Acetylcholine plays an important role during REM Sleep. I cite an answer to the question "Why do dreams lose clarity quickly over time after we awaken?": Activity in the PFC during sleep may be ...
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How is saccadic movement managed in the brain?

I haven't been able to find any decent articles on this specific topic. So I have three (hopefully quick) questions: What part of the brain is actively controlling saccadic movement? If this part ...