For questions about the biology of the nervous system, from a macroscopic to microscopic perspective.

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Is a network of neurons the only factor in memory?

Background I'm actually writing a science fiction novel set a couple decades in the future. Brains are not my field. I've done as much research as I could. In the story, the protagonist finds out he ...
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1answer
396 views

How do we hear our inner voice?

How do we perceive inner speech? Does it follow the same neural pathways as normal acoustic speech? If yes, what is the extent of overlap between the two neural pathways?
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32 views

Mechanism of ketamine in treatment of depression and anxiety?

What are the mechanisms by which ketamine reduces the symptoms of depression and anxiety?
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57 views

Does STDP make the Hebbian learning rule redundant?

On Scholarpedia they introduce STDP (spike timing dependent plasticity) as a temporally asymmetric form of Hebbian learning, making it sound as if the original Hebbian rule still has relevance in ...
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5 views

fmri onsets, missing pulse logs - what is the minimal information necessary to be analyze experiment?

Very basic, probably stupid question, but help is very much appreciated. I am running an fmri-experiment (block design), which was programmed in java (not by me) and has been used before. Trying it at ...
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51 views

Does increased motor development always occur at the expense of speech development, or vice versa?

It is often said that infants / toddlers* develop in a focused manner. I am specifically interested in the notion that a quick development of speech occurs at the expense of motor skill development ...
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1answer
201 views

How does the inner ear encode sound intensity?

Different areas of the inner ear (the cochlea) are sensitive to different acoustic frequencies. Hence, the cochlea basically performs a fast Fourier transform on the audio signal. This spectral ...
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1answer
57 views

How do neurons limit their input current?

I know that many neurons have an input current-spiking frequency (I-F) relationships, e.g. as seen here. However, all the I-F curves I've encountered show the input current in a fairly small range (...
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110 views

What's the relation between firing of dopaminergic neurons and dopamine dispersion in terms of neurophysiological processes?

Question: How does the firing of dopaminergic neurons affect the dispersal of dopamine? Evidence of my limited familiarity with dopaminergic neurons and motivation for asking the question: Most of ...
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1answer
152 views

Does a split brain affect the inner voice?

In the Nature link provided, split brain reportedly alters the processing of sensory input (e.g., an aberrant performance on monocular visual tasks under laboratory conditions), and impairs motor ...
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1answer
58 views

Does oxytocin reduce brain activity?

In the book "Psychologie" by Richard J. Gerrig, Philip Zimbardo I read there are studies claiming that: "die gegenwärtige Forschung legt nahe, dass das Hormon eine facettenreiche Rolle bei ...
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1answer
73 views

How do people with a split brain experience reality?

Some people with severe epileptic seizures have the connection between their two brain halves cut. How appears reality for them, and why does this procedure helps them?
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51 views

What is the relationship between visual attention network and visual stream (Two-streams hypothesis)?

There are two visual attention networks proposed by Maurizio Corbetta and Gordon L. Shulman (2002). These are top-down and bottom-up attention networks. One system, which includes parts of the ...
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2answers
122 views

Can normal brain activity arise from no (or random) brain activity?

I wonder how stable the brain is as a dynamical system. In other words, how important the state (current activation) of the brain is for its further functioning. Would the brain recover from a state ...
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1answer
27 views

What is the relation of visual quality and distance from the central field of view?

I have read somewhere that Our visual perception degrades non-linearly with distance from the fovea. However, it was not referenced. I was wondering if there is a reference talking about this?...
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1answer
31 views

What is the purpose of non-spiking and anaxonic neurons?

What is the purpose of non-spiking neurons and anaxonic neurons in neural tissue?
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1answer
48 views

Why can't hemineglect patients be trained to actively pay attention to their neglected side?

I'm still having a hard time understanding the symptoms of hemineglect, mainly because perception and attention has been two peas of a pod for most of my experiences. A Scholarpedia article states ...
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1answer
35 views

What is the function of the connection between the two halves of the thalamus?

What kind of direct exchange do we have between the two halves of the thalamus, whether going through the thalamic adhesion or not? Do we know what parts of left and right thalamus are connected and ...
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71 views

Does a person really have free will? [closed]

Psychology and other cognitive sciences study human thoughts and emotions as reflections to biological operations. These operations are involuntary and thus result in determined behaviour. Does this ...
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15 views

How does aggression transferring work neurologically?

Psychologist often prefict phenomena before they are scientifically observed. For example they have known for a long time that if you don't think about something for some time, you forget it. This can ...
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1answer
57 views

How does architecture impact cognition and mental health?

Research indicates that scenic, natural environments positively impact human health and mental well-being [1][2]. But what about the impact of man-made architecture and various architectural styles on ...
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2answers
108 views

Can LSD connect sensory regions in the brain?

How is it possible that after using LSD you can hear sounds and see colours? I have my own experience with this phenomenon. When I´m lying totally relaxed in bed and suddenly a door is closed loudly,...
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1answer
51 views

Can neuron change from excitatory to inhibitory (end vice versa) over time?

According to this answer a neuron can release only specific type of neurotransmitters at the time, however, could it change over time? For example a neuron that now releases only inhibitory ...
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Voltage sensitive dyes technique: 2-photons microscopy vs confocal microscopy

I just discovered voltage sensitive dyes technique and I was wondering what would be the advantage to use 2-photons microscopy compared to confocal microscopy? They are both fluorescent techniques ...
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1answer
38 views

Can one neuron spike inhibit and excite at the same time?

Is it possible to have a neuron that in some synapses releases inhibitory neurotransmitters and excitatory in others (everything triggered by the same spike) ?
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2answers
53 views

Can a hyperpolarized neuron fire action potentials?

Is there any chance that a neuron could fire when hyperpolarized? In that case, would the spike be different than usual?
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1answer
46 views

What prevents a neuron from activating an incoming synapse?

As is known, a neuron can have incoming and outgoing synapses. When a neuron fires, what does prevent that only outgoing synapses are activated?
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1answer
24 views

Voltage sensitive dyes technique: What is the underlying measure?

I just discovered voltage sensitive dyes technique: I have seen that figures are labelled with dF/F0, what does it stands for?
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369 views

Do all types of synapses in the brain change based on spike-timing-dependent plasticity?

Synapses likely change their strengths based on a form of spike-timing-dependent plasticity. Is this true for all types of synapses in all parts of the human brain? I wonder if there are also synapses ...
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1answer
220 views

Does the human visual system implement (adaptive) histogram equalization?

The human visual system is very good at 'cancelling out' shadows and other lightning effects, and focusing on the contrast in images. A famous example of this is Adelson's checker shadow illusion: ...
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29 views

Does testosterone level cause more sexual dream content?

I have long been interested in dreaming, including how dream content can shed some light on brain chemistry. I did a search on the subject of testosterone levels altering dream content and see some ...
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How does the hippocampus and the “Papez” circuit form a memory?

It is admitted the hippocampus is necessary to the formation of new long term memories. At first, information goes back and forth between various parts of the cortex and the hippocampus. That's how a ...
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2answers
132 views

Does electricity pass through synapse?

As far as I understand, when a neuron fires the action potential generated in a cell body reaches only the presynaptic part of the synapse, then triggers the transmitter to pass through the gap, and ...
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1answer
45 views

Is the amount of learning modulated by reward transmitters?

The human brain is a signal processing system. Input streams contain sensory, motor, reward and possibly more signals mixed. I wonder if neuro transmitters associated with reward increase or decrease ...
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1answer
28 views

Is there visual focus during a saccade?

Has anyone succeeded in measuring where the focus is between saccades? Through some kind of nonintrusive brainscan perhaps? I would like to be able to draw with my thought :) (Something similar would ...
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1answer
64 views

How / when does neurogenesis occur while learning?

I've heard that learning to Juggle (new things) helps increase neurogenesis. So, what does it depend on? Does it have to be a physical skill only? Or can I study / read about Economics(which is ...
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1answer
61 views

Is the ordering of Brodmann areas arbitrary?

A single Brodmann area is defined based off cellular composition. Are the Brodmann areas ordinal, and if so for what reason? (e.g. is there something that makes Brodmann area 1 the "first one", and ...
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36 views

Which hormones are known to cause which psychological effects? [closed]

This might be a very broad question, but I'm looking for gathering a list of any hormone that can cause psychological effects - especially long-term. I would like to build a list of psychological ...
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20 views

What is the role of non-synaptic plasticity in learning and memory?

Is non-synaptic plasticity (e.g. changes in the spike threshold) believed to play a large role in learning and memory? If so, which roles are these effects believed to play?
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1answer
44 views

How long does a spiking signal last?

It is surprisingly hard to find information about the timing of neurons, in particular how long an action potential can contribute to the summation of a neuron. Is it on the order of milliseconds or ...
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Does the brain generate identical words in different languages similarly?

Saying (or even just thinking) a word or phrase results from activity in multiple regions of your brain. Of course, we can measure/'map' this activity to some degree; From wikipedia: EEG measures ...
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1answer
29 views

Publicly Available NEURON models

NEURON is a software package for simulating neurons and networks in great detail. Although it's quite easy to find papers that use NEURON with a simple Google Scholar search, is there some way to find ...
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4answers
93 views

What are the rules that govern neuron behavior?

This is what I know so far: Neurons are nodes with a number called the threshold. Neurons are connected to other neurons through directed axons. Axons take the signals produced by neurons and ...
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2answers
105 views

If orgasm triggers bonding and feelings of love, why don't people continue to stay in love?

I am a bit confused by the effects of orgasm in bonding; everything I seem to read seems to be a bit careless with the truth and does not mention why people fall out of love or why people who are in ...
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1answer
87 views

When does reward occur? When dopamine is released or when it is binded?

I know this is a silly question, but I'm curious as to what is the exact phase when we experience of the thrill of doing an exciting activity. I believe this briefly describes the whole process. So, ...
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1answer
35 views

What is input resistance and how to interpret its values?

For example, this site gives a distribution of values of the input resistance of various cells. The values are in MOhms. The definition says that "input resistance measured at steady-state voltage ...
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75 views

How far can a signal travel in the neocortex without passing through the white matter?

Correct me if I am wrong please, from what I understand horizontal communication spans very short distance in all layers of the neocortex but layers I and II. In these two layers dendrites and axons ...
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When we say signals go from one cortical area to an other one do we mean they go directly without going through the thalamus for example?

Or is it implied signals always have to go back and forth between the thalamus and the cortex? Or is it possible they do both at the same time? Or maybe for areas next to each others they can go ...
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1answer
47 views

During synchronized waves oscillation (alpha beta etc…) do neurons fire only once for each wave cycle?

Or can they fire few times then pause and again, firefew times and pause periodically? If the second case happens then do we know if the neurons that fire in synchronity fire the same number of ...