For questions regarding specific structures in the central and peripheral nervous systems

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11
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2answers
1k views

Folding (wrinkles) in cortex: Why is surface area more important than volume?

When we look at the cortex of the brain, it has a folded structure. It is said that this is because this enables a greater number of neurons to exist, which is obviously advantageous. However, we ...
11
votes
2answers
175 views

Which are the multisensory brain areas?

What would be an example of a multisensory brain area, where multiple senses (e.g. smell and taste) are combined to decode the corresponding stimuli from more than one sensory organ? I was thinking ...
9
votes
3answers
110 views

Which area of the brain was first correctly associated with a specific function?

I have read on this website that Broca's area was the first area of the brain to be associated correctly with a specific function, in that case language. But I couldn't find any other source for the ...
9
votes
1answer
272 views

How common is alien hand syndrome?

The impression that I got from looking at a couple of articles on alien hand syndrome was that it was an extremely common or basically guaranteed result of getting a callosotomy to treat severe ...
8
votes
1answer
226 views

Fusiform Face Area (FFA) for within class recognition?

Is there any evidence (papers, studies, etc) that the Fusiform Face Area is used for any other type of recognition besides facial recognition? I remember hearing or reading a long time ago that ...
8
votes
1answer
85 views

What is the meaning of “little efferent input” to retina?

Gollisch & Meister (2010) state that "the retina receives little efferent input from the brain" (p. 157). Could anyone describe what exactly this "little efferent input" (where it originates, ...
8
votes
1answer
122 views

How similar are the brains of twins?

I am currently reading undergraduate essays on biological dysfunction and schizophrenia. The students put a lot of weight in the fact that studies of monozygotic twins show only a 50% rate of ...
8
votes
1answer
98 views

Comparative functional neuroanatomy: humans & octopodes

Cephalopod brains are toroidal (high surface area to volume ratios!), with the esophagus passing through the, uh, donut hole; octopodes are very intelligent, particularly spatially. Where can I find ...
8
votes
1answer
101 views

What brain regions are activated when a dream is remembered?

Some people remember dreams, others don't. The same person can wake up with dream recall one day and without on other days. I know that the association between REM sleep and dreaming was initially ...
7
votes
3answers
427 views

Non coitus sexual activity and the brain

Most animals will only engage in sexual activity that can result in reproduction. There are some exceptions; Bonobos, for instance, engage in a lot of sexual activity that does not involve coitus. ...
7
votes
1answer
276 views

Does adult neurogenesis occur only in the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus?

The scholarpedia article on this subject says: Adult neurogenesis is the process of generating new neurons which integrate into existing circuits after fetal and early postnatal development ...
7
votes
1answer
112 views

What can be inferred about the strength of the synapse from an electron microscope image?

In the following EM image (1um scale), there are several synapses: Image or HD Version What information about the synaptic strengths can be extracted from this image? Does vesicle count contain ...
7
votes
1answer
61 views

Is neuroplasticity limited to the cerebral cortex in the brain?

In this question, I am defining neuroplasticity as being the creation of new connections between neurons. I'm aware that there is a high degree of neuroplasticity in the cortex and that new ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Why is the order of white/grey matter different in the brain and spinal cord?

In the brain proper, grey matter forms the outer layer of the brain, and white matter forms the inner layer. In the spine, this is reversed: white matter forms the outer layer of the spine, and grey ...
6
votes
1answer
93 views

Are the human cerebral hemispheres only connected via the corpus callosum?

Are the human cerebral hemispheres only connected via the corpus callosum? Or is there any other structure for interaction between the left and right hemispheres?
6
votes
1answer
119 views

What are the neural substrates of retrieval induced forgetting?

Retrieval-induced effects It is well known that practicing retrieval of remembered items increases the probability of correctly recalling that item in future tests: the testing effect. Retrieval-...
6
votes
1answer
61 views

Is the ordering of Brodmann areas arbitrary?

A single Brodmann area is defined based off cellular composition. Are the Brodmann areas ordinal, and if so for what reason? (e.g. is there something that makes Brodmann area 1 the "first one", and ...
6
votes
1answer
93 views

How does it come about that specific areas of the brain are associated with specific functions?

During the development of the human brain, specific areas come to perform specific functions. How (and when) does this differentiation come about? Presumably, some areas of the brain naturally take ...
5
votes
3answers
4k views

Training for the corpus callosum?

Since reading is done in the left hemisphere of the brain, does reading text in the left visual field train the corpus callosum? For instance, I am interested in knowing whether training may lead to ...
5
votes
1answer
76 views

How far can a signal travel in the neocortex without passing through the white matter?

Correct me if I am wrong please, from what I understand horizontal communication spans very short distance in all layers of the neocortex but layers I and II. In these two layers dendrites and axons ...
5
votes
1answer
251 views

What keeps the cerebrospinal fluid circulating? Is it pumped by something?

What keeps the cerebrospinal fluid circulating? Is it pumped by something? This picture from wikipedia seems to indicate that it pulsates as though it is pumped:
5
votes
0answers
41 views

How does de-myelination occur in multiple sclerosis? [closed]

From what I understand, only the oligodendrocytes are affected in multiple sclerosis, and they are attacked by T cells which cross the blood-brain barrier. This leads me to two questions: How is the ...
4
votes
2answers
98 views

Are axons in the brain weighted?

Is it known whether the connection strength of synapses is important to the functioning of the brain or does just the binary existence of a synapse matter? Also, how widely do the strengths of ...
4
votes
1answer
66 views

Which areas of the brain make up the brain stem?

I am trying to learn the anatomy of the brain and am getting rather confused. When it comes to the brain stem, I have seen some sources say that it consists of the midbrain (mesencephalon) and ...
4
votes
1answer
46 views

What are there neuroanatomical mappings of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task?

I know that the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task is used to diagnose various mental disfunctions such as schizophrenia and drug addiction. However, has it been specified what brain regions or structures ...
4
votes
1answer
383 views

What are presynaptic puncta?

What are presynaptic puncta? And what makes them different from presynaptic terminals?
4
votes
1answer
83 views

Can two neurons in the brain be connected more than once?

Can two given neurons in the human brain can be directly connected more than once, either mutually or in the same or direction? Also, can the same neuron have transitive connections to itself (in ...
4
votes
1answer
37 views

Are the language and sound centres of the brain in the same area?

I am an English major currently taking a Psycholinguistics module. One of the things we learned is that speech perception is handled differently from non-speech sound perception. Our brain is trained ...
3
votes
1answer
97 views

What is the purpose of hemispheric specialisation in the brain?

What is the benefit or purpose of having different hemispheres of the brain contribute more to different cognitive processes?
3
votes
1answer
373 views

Does every human brain have the same shape?

Apart from the general structure (6 layer cortex, same areas, etc.) does every brain have the exact same number and arrangement of sulci, gyri, etc? Do these elements have the same shape?
3
votes
1answer
209 views

What causes Capgras (“imposter”) Syndrome?

Capgras Syndrome is a rare disorder in which a person believes his or her loved ones have been replaced by identical-looking impostors (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capgras_delusion). What causes this ...
3
votes
1answer
61 views

What was the quantified brain volume of Albert Einstein?

I have read articles stating that Albert Einstein had an average brain volume but couldn't find a specific measurement. I'm curious because the articles are all so ambiguous. He could have been on the ...
3
votes
1answer
154 views

How many synapses in the average human brain?

Knowing there are 100,000,000,000 neurons in an average human brain, and 7,000 dendrites in each neuron, and neurons are connected to each other by dendrites and axon terminals, how many synapses are ...
3
votes
1answer
38 views

What is the function of the connection between the two halves of the thalamus?

What kind of direct exchange do we have between the two halves of the thalamus, whether going through the thalamic adhesion or not? Do we know what parts of left and right thalamus are connected and ...
3
votes
1answer
28 views

Where are intrinsically bursting neurons found in the mammalian brain?

There are neurons in the brain that exhibit bursting behaviour. In some cases, this is due to interactions with the surrounding neural network. In other cases, it is due to intrinsic biological ...
3
votes
1answer
27 views

Are brain sub-divisions based off embryonic development used when describing mature brains?

Are the terms for brain divisions based off of embryonic development (e.g. prosencephalon, diencephalon) used for mature brain divisions? (e.g. forebrain, interbrain). For example, would it be wrong ...
3
votes
0answers
131 views

What are the brain regions related to tinnitus shown in this figure?

I am interested in learning about the neural mechanisms behind tinnitus, and was wondering if someone could help me to name the parts of the brain on this image that show increased activity in ...
3
votes
0answers
86 views

What are the smallest neurons ever identified? [closed]

What are the smallest neurons ever measured? I'm happy with any superlatives, such as the thinnest axons or dendrites, smallest somata etc. Thank you :)
2
votes
1answer
36 views

Is the hypothalamus part of the limbic system?

I believe the hypothalamus is involved in control of appetite and defensive and reproductive behaviours, which are functions of the limbic system, and according to this website http://webspace.ship....
2
votes
0answers
241 views

Are there some tools to get human brain Brodmann areas from X,Y,Z coordinates?

Is there some program that given the x,y,z coordinates of a area in a given brain template, gives the histological Brodmann area relative to that template? I'm interested in associating x,y,z ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

What are the effects of antipsychotic medication on brain volume?

I have read numerous different papers each claiming that antipsychotic medication either helps maintain brain volume or causes brain volume reduction in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Why is Wernike's area of the brain called Wernike's area?

My teacher told us that this area of the brain helps with the comprehension of language and it is located in the temporal lobe of the cortex, but she never told us why is was called Wernike's area and ...
1
vote
2answers
744 views

What does dorso, ventro, and orbital mean in prefrontal cortext?

The prefrontal cortex has 3 parts: Dorso prefrontal cortex Ventro prefortal cortex Orbital prefrontal cortex What does dorso, and ventro mean? I thought orbital means back?
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Brain anatomy- hippocampus and amygdala positions

I'm trying to teach myself about the structure of the brain and am slightly confused as to whether the hippocampus and amygdala are parts of the temporal lobe or whether they are just parts of the ...
1
vote
2answers
67 views

What would happen if we cut the corpus callosum?

How would a two-halved brain work? If it would, could we still control things like motion, and would hearing, vision, and other senses still function?
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Where is neurogenesis absent/uncommon in the human brain? [duplicate]

I know that neurogenesis is an integral part of hippocampus, however are there parts of the brain where neurogenesis never or rarely happens? I'm assuming that any part of the brain stem does not have ...
1
vote
0answers
89 views

What is the general frequency (or range of frequencies) of “sparks” in the human brain per minute and at what locations? [closed]

How many electrical sparks occur in the brain, on average, per minute and at what structures do they occur? For the "how many" figure, I would be happy to have ranges here from relaxed to excited ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Let's say I have an MRI scan of my brain. What exactly can I learn from it? [closed]

Asking this because I participated in an MRI study today at my local University, and the compensation will be an emailed 'picture of my brain'. Note that I intend this question to be catered towards ...
0
votes
3answers
356 views

Where is knowledge of how the brain works stored?

If we are our brains, and our brains know how they work, this means that this information is stored somewhere in the brain, like the inferior temporal cortex is the part of the brain that recognizes ...
0
votes
2answers
79 views

Where is motor skill function located within the brain?

Does the neural activity that correlates with motor skill function tend to be focused near or far from the outer surface of the brain, or both? And what about perception? My deeper curiosity being: I'...