For questions regarding the cognitive processes which result in the selection of a course of action among several alternative scenarios.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

2
votes
0answers
25 views

Need a definition of Cognitive Simplicity (or Complexity) that would appeal to a wide audience

Everyone in my organization wants to make our products & website as simple as possible for our customers. My concern is that "simple" means different things to different people. I'm looking for a ...
9
votes
4answers
277 views

Why do people feel the need to make changes to a solution presented by another person?

There is an interesting phenomenon I have come across several times when working with groups, and that is the need some people have to make changes to a solution that someone else created. The ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

Can we explain the tendency of investors dollar cost averaging in terms of loss aversion?

For those unfamiliar with the term Dollar cost averaging (DCA) is an investment strategy for reducing the impact of volatility on large purchases of financial assets such as equities. By ...
4
votes
1answer
78 views

Why is Mr. Monk unsure?

One of the funniest and most psychologically intriguing characters on TV (in my opinion) is Adrian Monk. If you don't know who he is, I highly recommend watching the TV show. It's called "Monk" ...
3
votes
1answer
66 views

Are people more likely to pick the odd one out?

I was wondering if there has been any research to suggest that when given a list of options to choose from, people are more likely to pick an option if it looks different to the other options? My ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

What is a neurometric function?

Is the output of neurometric function the output of the pattern classifier i.e is it calculated from processing the imaging data of brain as a prediction of what choice was made through psychometric ...
4
votes
1answer
46 views

What are “Stimulus locked” and “Response locked” in Philiastides & Sajda (2006)

While going through the below-mentioned paper, I came across some plots which were said to be "locked" with reference to either response or stimulus. Does the locking refer to the initiation of the ...
3
votes
1answer
38 views

What are “linear spatial weightings” and “specific temporal windows” in Philiastides & Sajda (2006)?

I am undergraduate student in mathematics and a complete beginner in the field of neuroscience. I recently started a project in Mathematical biology which brought me to the above mentioned paper. I ...
6
votes
1answer
42 views

What decision problems are better answered with analytic thinking, and what are better answered with intuition?

Most Western philosophy and psychology argue that deliberating carefully and rationally is the right way of reaching a decision. "Don't let emotions turn you" they might say. The splitting of the mind ...
3
votes
0answers
24 views

Do laypeople think lifestyle changes are effective at preventing and treating disease?

I'm curious about how laypeople think about healthy lifestyle changes (like eating well, not smoking, exercising) that are scientifically known to help prevent and treat a number of diseases. People ...
2
votes
0answers
17 views

Is it harder to perform a difficult act or avoid doing a compelling act?

Suppose what we have a set of choices $S$. Also suppose that $S$ consists of two "difficult" choices $X$ and $Y$ that rely on action and inaction respectively. So $S = \{X, Y \}$. Is it more difficult ...
3
votes
0answers
37 views

What is the psychological cause and meaning of “common sense”?

To what extent is common sense innate versus influenced by interactions with others? If someone has grown up with minimal interaction with other people, would their common sense be different?
2
votes
1answer
97 views

Effect of time limits on problem solving

I recently took part in psychological testing as part of a recruitment process to a job. I was not happy about the evaluation I got and I asked for a feedback discussion with the psychologist. The ...
0
votes
1answer
137 views

The psychology of patriotism, dying for one's own country [closed]

There was an old Latin motto, "Dulce et decorum est, pro partria morii," which roughly translates into: "It is a sweet and beautiful thing to die for one's country." I used to think that this was a ...
15
votes
2answers
369 views

What is the term for human beings' tendency to obey without thinking?

I'm wanting to read more about a certain human behavior, but I am not sure what the proper term for it is, so some of the things I am finding aren't what I am looking for. I'm interested in how Humans ...
4
votes
1answer
103 views

Sensory dissonance: Will the visual or auditory channel win?

Is there any research showing that our visual channel takes precedence over the auditory channel (or vice versa) if there is some dissonance between them? Examples: Say a person driving a car ...
7
votes
3answers
178 views

Why prefer “99% fat free” to “1% fat”?

In my experience I tend to find low-fat products labelled as "99% fat free" much more often than the equivalent "1% fat".* Why is this so? To me it seems counter-intuitive, because it reminds me of ...
2
votes
2answers
111 views

Why do soldiers seldom “fight to the death” even if they are going to be killed anyway?

At the siege of Masada, a group of heavily outnumbered Jewish soldiers elected to commit suicide en masse, rather than to be captured by the besieging Romans, who would probably have committed them to ...
7
votes
4answers
133 views

Research on “probabilistic thinking” in non-human animals?

We all seem to have a "probabilistic sense", which manifests itself in certain types of expectations (e.g. even if one has never used a bow to shoot an arrow, one expects that hitting a small target ...
3
votes
0answers
24 views

Does a baby go for the most hard-to-get out of two presented objects?

While writing an essay I'm searching for some reliable source for the following experiment: A baby is placed in front of two identical fruits, one which is covered with a transparent box. I think ...
5
votes
2answers
370 views

Why do people press elevator call buttons repeatedly?

Many people, particularly those in a rush, keep on pressing the elevator call button despite the light clearly indicating that it was previously pressed, and the knowledge that such action will have ...
2
votes
0answers
97 views

Kelly Criterion Observed to Be Adhered by Psychopaths?

As this study shows, psychopaths are much more willing to take advantage of expected gains despite recent losses as opposed to normal people who frequently stop after a series of losses. Has there ...
5
votes
1answer
116 views

Psychopaths' Response to Expected Losses?

It has been observed that psychopaths will accept positive expected values past some sort of notion of risk aversion by non-psychopaths. Are there any observations of psychopaths' responses to ...
8
votes
0answers
116 views

Bias towards purchasing tangible vs virtual goods

People may have very little hesitation in spending $3 on a coffee once a week, but when it comes to buying things online, such as virtual goods or services, they are often much more reluctant. Is ...
1
vote
0answers
45 views

What are the negative effects of meditation?

I see lots of articles touting the benefits of meditation. But what are the bad things about it? Maybe if a person has to make quick decisions, meditation would not be a good thing? This could be ...
9
votes
2answers
220 views

Do people estimate combined probabilities differently to uncombined ones?

Suppose, somebody has to estimate the likelihood of one of the following events (or has to estimate which event is more likely): A coin is tossed six times and each time the result is heads. ...
12
votes
1answer
97 views

How does displaying existing votes to a poll influence subsequent voting behaviour?

Some polls involve a question where the existing votes received for each response option are displayed. I have heard that on such polls the existing votes influence the answers provided by subsequent ...
4
votes
1answer
62 views

What was the experiment where a person is given something and then has to share it with another person

Bob is given a bar of chocolate by the experimenter. Then he is to propose how he will share the chocolate with Emilly. If Emilly agrees with Bob's proposal, the kids will each get their share. If ...
2
votes
1answer
156 views

Which branch of psychology deals with decision making under stress?

Our decisions are usually based on a system of perspectives, which in turn are based on one's own set of values. However there are traumatizing situations where this system of perspectives is turned ...
3
votes
0answers
108 views

Test-retest reliability of Iowa gambling task performance and Expectancy Valence Model parameters

I've just been learning about the Expectancy Valence Model of the Iowa Gambling Task (see Busemeyer & Stout, 2002; Yechiam et al 2005). The model includes three parameters: motivation, ...
5
votes
3answers
353 views

What is the mechanism behind “gut feelings”?

I'm thinking of a phenomenon that I've first observed in myself when taking an IQ test. Upon looking at the question, I selected an answer, but got this "gut feeling" or a hint that something was ...
6
votes
1answer
128 views

How people choose at random

This question is inspired by one asked at MathOverflow. (These questions at Cognitive Sciences and at Cross Validated might also be relevant.) Are there any studies on what choices humans ...
2
votes
3answers
245 views

Why do drivers not slow down when they see signs indicating road work?

I found the following anecdote on Quora Many years ago, I worked for a gas & electric power company, and had been a member of a crew installing a road-side gas main. Despite the signs, ...
4
votes
1answer
94 views

How does the brain know what to crave?

I remember that at some point on House, M.D., one of the characters mentioned that her patient craved milk because it contained some chemical he/she needed. How does the brain figure out what ...
10
votes
3answers
196 views

Is there a random walk theory that can account for situations with more than two choices?

In the article "Two-stage Dynamic Signal Detection: A Theory of Choice, Decision Time, and Confidence" from 2010 by Pleskac and Busemeyer, a random walk model is presented for situations where a ...
6
votes
1answer
90 views

When faced with a choice and trying to make a quick decision, are 2 options better than 3 or more options?

Bastardi & Shafir (1998) show how too much data disabilitates your decision making. There is also the popular Paradox Of Choice argument. However, I can't find a reference stating that, when ...
3
votes
0answers
104 views

Is Decision Making/Theory/Analysis applicable to game design?

I've done research over the last year in game design by reading some of the most well-known books in the field. Making interesting decisions is one of the fundamental elements of fun in games. I'm ...
5
votes
1answer
299 views

Why do people regret actions they didn't take when looking back on their lives?

Is it true that individuals often regret recent actions (i.e., last few months) but when they look back on their lives, they tend to regret things that they have not done (or lack of actions) ? If ...
12
votes
2answers
681 views

What tasks does Bayesian decision-making model poorly?

Bayesianism has been a relatively successful paradigm for modeling decision-making. However, not every psychologist is a bayesian, and there are tasks such as the Tversky & Shafir (1992) ...
5
votes
0answers
129 views

Online datasets for the disjunction effect and violations of the sure-thing principle

The disjunction effect (or violation of the sure-thing principle) is as follows: A dis­junc­tion effect occurs when peo­ple pre­fer x over y when they know that event A obtains, and they also ...
8
votes
1answer
125 views

Problem understanding the calculation of normative (Bayesian) base rates

I am having trouble understanding Table 1 of Gigerenzer, Hell, and Blank (1988, PDF, table on page 516): Focusing on the Jack row, it is stated that the mean probabilities of Jack being an engineer ...
15
votes
2answers
761 views

What are popular rationalist responses to Tversky & Shafir?

In the early 90s Tversky & Shafir observed several violations of rationality in human participants, in particular violation of the disjunction effect and sure-thing principle. This has lead to ...
7
votes
1answer
96 views

Who first used the term 'heuristic' in a cognitive science context?

I seem to recall that Herbert Simon borrowed the term from computer science, but I cannot remember the initial paper in which he made use of this borrowing. A google scholar search reveals some ...
7
votes
1answer
100 views

A study about preference for making relatively vs. absolute more money?

I remember reading about a study. I forgot the actual details of it, but the gist of it was: people were asked in what situation they would prefer to live, one where they make \$100,000 dollars and ...
6
votes
2answers
139 views

How to computationally model the Wisconsin Card Sorting task? [closed]

The Wisconsin Card Sorting task is rather famous but appears to be quite difficult to model computationally. To respond to @Artem's question, I work in RL and I am interested in how people learn the ...
10
votes
1answer
145 views

What constructs help explain limited cognitive processing and the cognitive effects of rules that limit decision making choices?

Supposed that I'm a married man, and my wife asks me to pick out a paint color for our new house. It's not terribly mentally taxing. However, my wife starts to add rules. The color can't be too ...
8
votes
2answers
134 views

What cognitive strategies diminish bias in decision-making beyond those outlined by Larrick?

Larrick (2004; pdf) offers a small number of suggestions for strategies to diminish bias in decision making, which he breaks down into four categories. "Consider the opposite". Tell decision-makers ...
7
votes
1answer
180 views

Appropriate metric(s) for quantifying the accuracy gain obtained from averaging dyads of estimates instead of adopting individual estimates?

Background The question relates to research I am doing into the Wisdom of Crowds effect (Galton, 1907; Page, 2007; Surowiecki, 2004), in which an average of the estimates made by individuals proves ...
20
votes
2answers
460 views

Performance of a group solving a cognitive task: How does it scale?

Some intellectual, cognitive and perceptual tasks can be solved collaboratively. It is common knowledge that group performance is better than that of each single individual due to exchange of ...
4
votes
1answer
107 views

What is the term for judging based on a simulation of the same parameters on oneself

Allow me to outline the observed process and three hypothetical examples below. For the sake of keeping the samples simple, I will ignore prior moral or religious convictions that a regular person ...