For questions regarding the study of the underlying neural substrates of cognition, especially those at the crossroads of psychology and neurobiology

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Is 1st person perspective useless, may it be eliminated?

If it is true, modern cognitive science tries to find a 3rd person description of the mind, is the 1st person perspective (what philosophers may call phenomenon or qualia) completely useless in ...
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1answer
70 views

How does the brain know whether or not it comprehends a novel concept?

There seem to be at least two kinds of confusion regarding novel concepts. In one, the brain simply can't form an abstract model from whatever information is being presented. It's where you can't ...
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18 views

How does conscious rational internal thought gets initiated - what gives rise to it on any given day?

I'm reading a book called "The power of now" by Ekhart Tolle, and in that book he suggests that internal dialogue/monologue/planning/judging can be first observed, then disidentified with and ...
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3answers
85 views

Can repetitive sports-related head injuries make a person senile many years later?

Would repetitive football injuries to the cranium show up decades later, causing symptoms resembling mild retardation, OCD, etc.? What is the best way to determine this in terms of imaging, testing, ...
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2answers
64 views

Why is it so difficult to use a “true mirror” as a mirror

This Youtube video shows what a "true mirror" is: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZSxCZCy5Wsk In short, when you look into a true mirror you look at yourself (among other things) as you really are, ...
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15 views

Is it sufficient to say self control eliciting the reduced ERN (error-related negativity) in cognitive control tasks?

The limited resource model of self control suggests that the exertion of self control can impair performance in subsequent cognitive control tasks (for details on the model, check this question. Most ...
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1answer
18 views

Biologically plausible cognitive model of Wisconsin card sorting task

As discussed previously, there are a wide range of models that have been applied to the Wisconsin card sorting task. However, which one is most biologically plausible? That is, uses a realistic model ...
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3answers
115 views

How are hallucinations generated, is it related to dreaming?

I was thinking how powerful auditory and visual hallucinations must be, for the individual experiencing them to be unable to distinguish them from reality. I, personally, have not experienced a ...
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1answer
76 views

Universal Mind? Nature or Nurture?

I have been reading a book entitled "The Geography of Thought" by Richard Nisbett. He talks about how easterners and westerners think differently. I am not all the way through it, but I agree with a ...
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0answers
18 views

What neurophysiological mechanisms are typically associated with distraction?

I've been looking into focus aids and I've come across some music which markets itself as entertaining your "limbic system". Although it's been asked before how music can affect mental states, I'm ...
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1answer
121 views

How far can we train mental calculation?

Mental calculators are people with a prodigious ability in some area of mental calculation, such as multiplying large numbers or factoring large numbers. Unfortunately I forgot where I heard it, ...
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2answers
78 views

Could neuroscientific knowledge and techiques be used to optimise peoples' education and learning?

Expanding upon this, I have two ideas behind this question - 1) that current knowledge of the brain and its workings (biochemically, biomechanically, physiologically etc) is in its infancy and that we ...
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34 views

Research on computational models of physiological mechanisms in affective neuroscience at a biochemical level

As computational neuroscience has the mainstream on single neuron/network modelling for biochemical aspect, and computational modelling of physiological mechanism of hippocampus for analytic study of ...
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2answers
57 views

Do the colour blind have a distinct visual cortex structure?

Studying the structure of the visual cortex, it seems there are many neural structures specifically dedicated to detecting and interpreting colour. For example, parvocellular cells are particularly ...
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2answers
46 views

Can hallucinogens treat depressive states?

Given the serotonin hypothesis of depression, increasing synaptic serotonin level may cause anti-depressive effects. Hallucinogens seems to have such advantages: They improve mood at once, but ...
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0answers
31 views

What cognitively interesting event-related potentials at FP1, FP2, TP9 or TP10 can be measured with consumer-grade EEG hardware?

I'm looking for cognitively interesting event-related potentials at places like FP1, FP2, TP9 or TP10 that can be measured with consumer-grade EEG hardware. Right now I have an Interaxon Muse EEG and ...
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2answers
104 views

What is the neurobiological basis of the “inner voice” used for thought or reading?

I've recently experienced a number of hypnogogic near sleep states characterized by change in thinking (stage 1-2 sleep). I noticed that if I let go and get absorbed in the state, I can follow it. I ...
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1answer
57 views

Effective sampling rate in human visual system

The [stroboscopic effect][1] is often explained as one of the problems of sampling. If sample rate is too low, you might have the impression of the signal frequency being low or even reverse. There ...
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2answers
83 views

How does masking work?

Masking occurs when the delay between the target and the mask is less than a threshhold (say 50 milliseconds). If sensory data passes from lower to higher visual cortices/processing regions as in a ...
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2answers
80 views

how is tone volume encoded?

I'm wondering whether increasing the volume would result in (a) a neuron that was already firing to now increase its spike rate, (b) a different group of neurons to add their activity to the ...
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0answers
66 views

Has there been a neuroscientific explanation of the color phi phenomenon?

The color phi phenomenon is a perceptual illusion in the visual domain which was demonstrated in an experiment by Kolers and von Grunau (1976). The experiment is as follows. A sequence of coloured ...
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1answer
64 views

Is meaning-seeking behavior a biological optimization problem?

In short, I'm interested in cognitive, neuroscientific, biological and/or computational perspectives on what we vaguely refer to as meaning seeking. Of course, this is a large topic, but any ...
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0answers
25 views

Is there a part of the human brain responsible for triggering imagination, fantasy and coming up with unusual stories?

I'm trying to understand if there's a specific process or part of the human brain which, when activated causes the person to daydream, engage in fantasy or come up with ideas that are far from common ...
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1answer
23 views

How does hPES compare to the learning rates of ANNs?

The primary learning mechanism of artificial neural networks (ANN) is back-propagation, which is not biologically plausible. Trevor Berkolay created an alternative to this learning with the ...
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1answer
47 views

Relation between Nengo, SPA and NEF with respect to other Neural Models

I'm working through How to Build a Brain and I keep getting confused on the relation between Nengo, the Semantic Pointer Architecture (SPA) and the Neurological Engineering Framework (NEF). Are there ...
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1answer
234 views

What are the cognitive effects of increasing testosterone levels in men?

I've recently became interested in the effects if testosterone on the cognitive function in men, but cannot find much hard scientific evidence on the subject. What are the cognitive effects of ...
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27 views

If stimulus triggers dopamine release, can dopamine release trigger memory recall of stimulus?

Modern science of sleep is starting to lean towards a viewpoint that dopamine has an important function in dreaming, and that dopaminergic pathways - mesolimbic and mesocortical are activated during ...
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0answers
19 views

What is the neurobiological difference between Jungian Judging and Perceiving individual?

Jungian or Myers Briggs type indicator reserves the last letter of a 4 letter archetype to stand for Judging or Perceiving. Part of being a Judging type is punctuality - being on time, keeping ...
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4answers
96 views

Different neural structures for quick vs. methodical decision making

In the book "Thinking, Fast and Slow", the author claims that there are two systems of thinking. System 1 is quick, instinctive and emotionally driven while System 2 is more logical and deliberate. ...
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9 views

Brain areas active while learning hierarchical structure of a problem

There are multiple examples in the machine learning literature of trying to learn the hierarchical structure of a reinforcement learning problem, however have there been any papers tying this learning ...
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170 views

What happens neurobiologically when people “think fast”?

This question is related to this one: How long can a person stay happy, excited and motivated about something new? I found a couple of references to research that links "thinking fast" to mood lift: ...
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1answer
40 views

A subtle test for color-blindness

Is there a test method of proving a person being color-blind, without letting the test subject know, that he/she is being tested? E.g. showing the person cards with colored dots like depicted here is ...
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1answer
90 views

Does the brain need more sleep after heavy load?

Does the brain require more sleep in the following night, if you have used a lot more of its capacity that day than usually?
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1answer
78 views

What is the difference between Behaviorism and Cognitivism?

Behaviorism vs. Cognitivism. I've been currently reading about the subject and I have trouble finding a definite difference between the two.
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1answer
63 views

Is there scientific evidence on the benefits of binaural beats?

I tried to google, but a lot looks like fake evidences and not having any scientific evidences. Is there one?
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1answer
35 views

Pupillometry: how long needs the pupil to respond towards an cognitive stimuli?

I would like to know if somebody could give me some literatur advice about the latency response of the pupil after a cognitive stimuli. I know that the light reflex response is quiet fast compared to ...
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0answers
27 views

What are the underlying mechanisms for optimal bias

I have asked a question before about how does smoker's decision react to new personal health information. Link here. How do people estimate smoking's impact on their mortality? Now I have a ...
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8answers
2k views

What's the major difference between mind and brain?

I am preparing a presentation on "Mind Reading Computer", and all articles that I came across were focused on reading interpretations from brain through sensors. Articles like this clearly show a ...
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23 views

Research into relation between constructed language choices and measurable cognitive skills

From my own anecdotal evidence: Two individuals with similar linguistic background, age, education, overall IQ, etc. prefer markedly different programming language styles: one individual prefers ...
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27 views

Is the mind's adaptation to increased traveling speeds, physical or psychological?

When a motor vehicle increases in speed, we soon adjust to the faster pace of movement; seemingly by processing incoming information faster. Is this purely psychological, with the brain "dropping" ...
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1answer
134 views

Why does optogenetics not mean that perfect brain-computer interfaces are possible?

There have been multiple articles and videos circulating on the Internet claiming that optogenetics has made it possible to have perfect input/output to the brain from a computer. This is obviously ...
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2answers
91 views

Can our auditory perception be used to trick our visual perception?

"Our consciousness lags 80 milliseconds behind actual events...The 80-millisecond rule plays all sorts of perceptual tricks on us. As long as a hand-clapper is less than 30 meters away, you hear and ...
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1answer
190 views

What cognitive processes occur during a mental exhaustion or 'burnout'?

Mental burnout - or mental exhaustion is not very pleasant, when one feels completely overwhelmed, something 'snaps' and it is hard to concentrate and maintain motivation. What are the cognitive ...
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1answer
32 views

Are there any fMRI decoding papers examining the relationship between attentional cueing and activity in V1?

I'm interested in reading on the influence of exogenous attention on cortical representations in early visual areas, but so far my google-fu seems to be failing me. There seems to be some literature ...
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1answer
71 views

What does double dissociation really tell us?

In psychological research, a single dissociation is when a manipulation leaves one cognitive function (say, A) intact whilst severing another (say, B). This indicates the functions A and B are at ...
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3answers
104 views

Neurological basis of selfishness?

Is there a neurological component to selfishness? Awhile back, I witnessed a mentally retarded person who was severely possessive of a water fountain, claiming it was "his". I've also seen ...
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3answers
122 views

Where is knowledge of how the brain works stored?

If we are our brains, and our brains know how they work, this means that this information is stored somewhere in the brain, like the inferior temporal cortex is the part of the brain that recognizes ...
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0answers
18 views

Is there an inexpensive, consumer version of this Fp1 Reading dry EEG?

Is there any, publicly available system like the one used at Keio Univeristy, that cost less than $1000? ...
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2answers
61 views

What causes words repeated in your head to start fading away from consciousness?

Background: I tried to do a self-control exercise that involved doing something boring like folding clothes while the exercise part involved repeatedly saying "focus" in my head, to stop daydreaming. ...
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45 views

What functions does the brain perform to recognize a familiar object unconsciously?

Let's say a person's brain experiences how a vehicle/object looks for the very 1st time. It would require lot of attention/focus/processing to analyse the object, extract features and train its neural ...