a pattern of deviation in judgment that occurs in particular situations, leading to perceptual distortion

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Why can't people solve a riddle if you tell them irrelevant information?

Suppose you tell a riddle to your friend, e.g. a situation puzzle: A man walks into a bar, and asks the bartender for a drink of water. The bartender pulls out a gun, points it at the man, and ...
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What cognitive principle is behind loss (without aversion)

The loss aversion bias refers to a strong preference to avoid loss than to acquire a similar gain. My question is, when there is no gain to compare to, what cognitive principle is behind our dismay ...