a pattern of deviation in judgment that occurs in particular situations, leading to perceptual distortion

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73 views

Is there a name for a scientist's resistance to disconfirmation of his or her theories?

Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses. And some results illustrate that people set higher standards of evidence ...
5
votes
3answers
114 views

Is there a term for a person who moves from one field of expertise to a new field and has an inflated belief in their competence in the new field?

Person A has led a successful career and is very well renowned in field A. Later in life, person A moves to field B, a field they're curious about but have very little experience in. Person A ...
2
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1answer
110 views

Why can't people solve a riddle if you tell them irrelevant information?

Suppose you tell a riddle to your friend, e.g. a situation puzzle: A man walks into a bar, and asks the bartender for a drink of water. The bartender pulls out a gun, points it at the man, and ...
2
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1answer
64 views

Why do some people believe that life is a zero-sum game and that if you harm someone, you will benefit?

I have a strong feeling that many people consider life as a zero-sum game, i.e. they always assume that you'll benefit, if you harm/disadvantage someone. Any research on this?
2
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2answers
60 views

Is there a bias where long statements, books, articles, etc. are seen as more truthful?

Is there a cognitive biasing effect that makes people believe that long statements / expressions / articles / books are more truthful than short ones (assuming that they are equal semantically)?
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0answers
17 views

What cognitive principle is behind loss (without aversion)

The loss aversion bias refers to a strong preference to avoid loss than to acquire a similar gain. My question is, when there is no gain to compare to, what cognitive principle is behind our dismay ...
0
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2answers
76 views

Prevalence of psychological “problems”

Giulio Cesare Giacobbe is an expert of psychosynthesis. In one of his books (Alla Ricerca delle Coccole Perdute) he speaks of childish, neurotic people. He says most people are childish and neurotic. ...
3
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2answers
66 views

Binary classification as a cognitive strategy?

Is there any research investigating whether the human cognitive system has a tendency to reduce complex systems or spectra of data in terms of binary contrast? There are many common-sense dual ...
2
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1answer
83 views

How to refer to the phenomenon of people only absorbing evidence which confirms their beliefs?

I knew a psychologist who was calling it self-referentiality. People are always trying to see only the sentence which confirm their beliefs. What's the correct name for this?
2
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1answer
23 views

In measuring preferences, is the magnitude of the question wording effect topic-dependent?

I just read that in a survey on legalizing abortions: Responses depended strongly on the question wording. But I have also seen cases where question wording is largely irrelevant. As long as ...
3
votes
1answer
44 views

Bias in which you judge others by what you are good at?

Motivated by this question about programming and intelligence, I've noticed that people often judge other people's competence in terms of how well they perform on the domains that they have more ...
2
votes
1answer
97 views

Are people who have a crush on someone generally delusional with respect to their crush?

This question came up in relationships.SE (still in beta) in this lengthy thread (which I hope you can get access to). Basically the disagreement goes as follows: Telling somebody with a crush ...
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2answers
55 views

Is there some effect that forces humans to judge things and people according to the conception of their own image?

I remember of having read that such effects do exist, but I don't remember where. If that is true or if the hypothesis exist, I'd like to have references about it.
3
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1answer
185 views

What is it called when a person seeks to compare themselves to others?

What is it called when a person consciously or unconsciously looks for similarities and differences in other people's reasoning, behavior, actions or past events and compares them with his/her own ...
5
votes
2answers
165 views

Name of the bias when one expects you to possess his knowledge

What is the name of bias or fallacy when, often while in argument, someone expects you to know the same things as he does. Usually, you just say "well, how should have I known that. I'm not inside of ...
6
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1answer
184 views

Minimizing Halo Error

I'm working with a dataset wherein participants rate five different attributes of six device variants; the attribute ratings different variants are very tightly correlated, suggesting that this ...
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2answers
175 views

What is the name of the cognitive bias where an expert overestimates the knowledge of others?

I'm looking for a name of a cognitive bias that describes the following phenomenon: A person has been exposed to some area of expertise from a very early age (think 7-10), and for an extended period ...
4
votes
1answer
155 views

Can people alleviate a negative halo effect about them?

According to Wikipedia: "The halo effect or halo error is a cognitive bias in which one's judgments of a person’s character can be influenced by one's overall impression of him or her." ...
6
votes
1answer
195 views

Name of the bias where someone really needs something after they find out it exists

I'm looking for the name of the cognitive bias that is expressed in the following story. A fellow coworker was instrumental in getting a 75 gallon fish tank installed in the lobby of the company that ...
7
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1answer
84 views

Effect of paper type on evaluation of resumes

I heard about an experiment that have shown an effect of the type of paper a resume was printed on, on the evaluation of the resume. If I remember correctly, resumes printed on heavier paper, or ...
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votes
1answer
248 views

Most common cognitive biases? [closed]

I'm an amateur student of cognitive biases and psychological traps and have been reading some of the work of Kahneman, Tversky, Gilovich et al. along with more popular books like Cialdini's ...
9
votes
1answer
133 views

What is the bias/thought process that results in distrust of “formal” knowledge in favor of “folk” knowledge?

An interesting effect I've noticed is that certain groups of people seem to accept "folk knowledge" and value it over significantly better founded "formal" or scientific knowledge. In particular this ...
5
votes
1answer
85 views

Quantify degree to which non-diagnostic features bias category-present response

I need a measure of the degree to which each of several features biases participants to respond "yes" in a category present / absent task for each of several categories. I have stimuli defined along ...
35
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3answers
2k views

What makes people easily subscribe to pseudoscientific theories?

There are many theories/disciplines that have been categorized as pseudoscience in the scientific community. The list includes many things that are regularly even quoted in media like graphology, ...
10
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2answers
232 views

How can the success of Bayesian models be reconciled with demonstrations of heuristic and biased reasoning?

In recent years, Bayesian models of cognition have been used - with considerable success - to explain human reasoning in a variety of inferential tasks (Chater, Tenenbaum, & Yuille, 2006). These ...
8
votes
2answers
141 views

What cognitive strategies diminish bias in decision-making beyond those outlined by Larrick?

Larrick (2004; pdf) offers a small number of suggestions for strategies to diminish bias in decision making, which he breaks down into four categories. "Consider the opposite". Tell decision-makers ...
6
votes
2answers
46 views

What term describes the discrepancy in reported intention to vote and actual voting behaviour?

I am interested in prediction markets, where traders have a monetary incentive to bet on who they think would win in an election. I think that the financial incentive in prediction markets makes them ...
6
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1answer
160 views

Savant syndrome and Cognitive bias

Take the case of an autistic savant with exceptional memory skills. Is this person less prone to cognitive biases involving memory skills such as availability heuristic bias than a normal person due ...
8
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2answers
167 views

Does self-rated performance predict objective performance over and above other-rated performance?

Context: I was at a talk today where data was presented where a group of sports people ranked their own performance and everyone else in the group. This enabled self-rated performance to be ...
10
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2answers
363 views

Is it possible to quantify cognitive bias?

We know that bias exists, and that it affects our judgment and perception. This effect has to do with user's experience in life. That experience is taken care of by the brain, and if you counter a ...
9
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2answers
231 views

Bias by which we tend to accept vague descriptions of ourselves

There's an effective strategy employed by horoscopes and "psychics" where they say vague statements like "You like being with friends but you value your time alone"; statements that basically "cover ...