Vitouch et. al (2006) observed that "visual tempo significantly influenced
the retrieved music tempo.".
Music is known to potentially affect the perception of visual scenes
(e. g., Vitouch, 2001), as proficiently demonstrated in the movies.
But do films also influence the perception of music? This study
investigates cross-modal influences in perception, taking influences
of “visual tempo” on perceived/retrieved music tempo as a model.
Both studies demonstrate clear crossover effects: There is not just
“musical driving” of film scenes, but also “visual driving” of music
perception. Results hint to holistic memory representations of
On the other hand, an older paper by Levitin and Cook (1996) observes that long term memory for music can preserve the absolute tempo, even by non-trained musicians. They do not investigate the influence of visual stimuli as in the previous paper.
We report evidence that long term memory retains absolute (accurate)
features of perceptual events. Specifically, we show that memory for
music seems to preserve the absolute tempo of the musical
performance. In Experiment 1, 46 subjects sang popular songs from
memory, and their tempos were compared to recorded versions of the
songs. Seventy-two of the subjects came within 8% of the actual tempo
on two consecutive trials (using different songs), demonstrating
accuracy near the perceptual threshold (JND) for tempo. In Experiment
2, a control experiment, we found that folk songs lacking a tempo
standard generally have a large variability in tempo; this counters
arguments that memory for the tempo of remembered songs is driven by
articulatory constraints. The relevance of the current findings to
theories of perceptual memory and memory for music are discussed.
Oliver Vitouch, Sandra Sovdat, Norman Höller (2006) Audio-vision: Visual input drives perceived music tempo. 9th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition
Levitin, D. J. & Cook, Perry R.(1996) Memory for musical tempo: Additional evidence that auditory memory is absolute. Perception & Psychophysics, 58, pp. 927-935.