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I read that neural networks are of two types:
a) Biological neural networks
b) Artificial neural networks (or ANN)

I read, "Neural Networks are models of biological neural structures," and the biological neural structure referred to the brain in the context of that text. Is the brain called a biological neural network? If not, what is the difference between the two terms?

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The term is used differently in different fields. The brain is a (biological) neural network: it's a network of neurons. Artificial neural networks, usually just referred to as neural networks, are computer simulations which process information in a way similar to how we think the brain does it. I'll add some links here in the morning. – Eoin Jul 23 '14 at 21:47
up vote 9 down vote accepted

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are mathematical constructs, originally designed to approximate biological neurons. Each "neuron" is a relatively simple element --- for example, summing its inputs and applying a threshold to the result, to determine the output of that "neuron".

Several decades of research went into discovering how to build network architectures using these mathematical constructs, and how to automatically set the weighting on each of the connections between the neurons to perform a wide range of tasks. For example, ANNs can do things like recognition of hand-written digits.

A "biological neural network" would refer to any group of connected biological nerve cells. Your brain is a biological neural network, so is a number of neurons grown together in a dish so that they form synaptic connections. The term "biological neural network" is not very precise; it doesn't define a particular biological structure.

In the same way, an ANN can mean any of a large number of mathematical "neuron"-like constructs, connected in any of a large number of ways, to perform any of a large number of tasks.

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Biological Neural Networks : It refers to our brain neural activities. Our brain is made up of neurons.

Artificial Neural Networks : For each stimuli our brain shows particular characteristic

Eg : When we see bright light we close our eyes.

Such characteristic and stimuli are transferred to robots (Only example) They will do the same as programmed. in this case Artificial Neural Networks are used (wires, circuits etc)

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