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Is / are there any scientific studies on factors which affect the general intelligence (g) factor?

I did a Google search, but could not find any academic papers on the topic.

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So you're basically asking what are the causes of interpersonal differences in intelligence as typically measured by standardised psychometric tests. This question forms the basis for a large proportion of the literature on intelligence. For example see a journal like Intelligence.

For a review you could read Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns

A few quick observations include that

  • Genetics is a major cause
  • Environmental causes are often less well understood
  • Head start and related programs designed to increase intelligence typically lead to limited long term gains
  • Severe environmental factors will negatively affect intelligence
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