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Is there contemporary research in trait psychology, which attempts to operationalize the structures behind a strategic thinking style? I'm thinking of a style of problem solving as taught in officer training, and to a lesser extent, manifesting in strategically-oriented games like chess.

I realize that this sounds perhaps a little vague. However, in common usage it's not unusual to refer to a person's being a "strategic thinker" or a "problem solver". I wanted to know whether these traits have been studied or deconstructed in a more formal capacity, so as to define them in a manner consistent with trait psychology.

Are there scientific definitions of strategic thinking with empirical support?

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This question has an open bounty worth +50 reputation from Christian Hummeluhr ending in 7 days.

The question is widely applicable to a large audience. A detailed canonical answer is required to address all the concerns.

There is plenty of theory on the traits of good leaders in I/O literature (a colleague of mine at UCR was extending this to traits of good followers too). I'd be surprised if there isn't something suitable out there; the military has its share of psychologists, and certainly ought to be interested in this question. –  Nick Stauner Jul 2 '14 at 7:52

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