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The symptoms are muscle weakness, slow reaction time, visual perception issues, seizures, hearing loss, weight gain, general sense of pain and delusions. Using the above scanning techniques, a doctor concluded that there are problems in emission of neurotransmitters and secretion of hormones as well as myelin sheath of some neurons, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe. Could you tell me how the doctor used the scanning tools to reach to his conclusion? I totally have no idea how the doctor learned that there's problem in emission of neurotransmitter by using scanning techniques.

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I do not think this question is too broad. – user3832 Jan 16 '14 at 6:00
Are the symptoms important to the core question at all? It seems to me they are unrelated and could be removed from the question title and content altogether, probably addressing the close votes which state this question is too broad. – Steven Jeuris Jan 16 '14 at 13:53
up vote 1 down vote accepted

You would have to ask your doctor to be certain but it seems to me that the PET could have identified the myelin sheath problems by the MeDAS binding and certainly could identify the neurotransmitters which were out of balance. The neurotransmitters are found by using a radiotracer which makes them measurable on the PET. The fMRI would have confirmed or identified the myelin sheath problems in a more localized way. The EEG was also given to rule out certain kinds of seizures and possibly identify the correct type.


PET scanning is also used for diagnosis of brain disease, most notably because brain tumors, strokes, and neuron-damaging diseases which cause dementia (such as Alzheimer's disease) all cause great changes in brain metabolism, which in turn causes easily detectable changes in PET scans. PET is probably most useful in early cases of certain dementias (with classic examples being Alzheimer's disease and Pick's disease) where the early damage is too diffuse and makes too little difference in brain volume and gross structure to change CT and standard MRI images enough to be able to reliably differentiate it from the "normal" range of cortical atrophy which occurs with aging (in many but not all) persons, and which does not cause clinical dementia.



The primary form of fMRI uses the Blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, discovered by Seiji Ogawa. This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals by imaging the change in blood flow (hemodynamic response) related to energy use by brain cells. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate brain mapping research because it does not require people to undergo shots, surgery, or to ingest substances, or be exposed to radiation. Other methods of obtaining contrast are arterial spin labeling and diffusion MRI.

The procedure is similar to MRI but uses the change in magnetization between oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood as its basic measure. This measure is frequently corrupted by noise from various sources and hence statistical procedures are used to extract the underlying signal. The resulting brain activation can be presented graphically by color-coding the strength of activation across the brain or the specific region studied. The technique can localize activity to within millimeters but, using standard techniques, no better than within a window of a few seconds.



In neurology, the main diagnostic application of EEG is in the case of epilepsy, as epileptic activity can create clear abnormalities on a standard EEG study.


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T2 weighted MRI scans can reveal white matter lesions, so that may explain the detection of demyelination.

Of course, that's not fMRI...

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