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I often see basketball players chew gum while making foul shots.

Does this help in their accuracy?
Any embodied cognitive explanation for this?

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Chewing gum increases heart rate and blood pressure through muscular exercise (Farella, Bakke, Michelotti, Marotta & Martina, 1999) and enhances mental performance through improved delivery of glucose to the brain (Stephens & Tunney, 2004).

I could not find any references to embodiment playing a role in the effects of chewing.


  • Farella, M., Bakke, M., Michelotti, A., Marotta, G., & Martina, R. (1999). Cardiovascular responses in humans to experimental chewing of gums of different consistencies. Archives of Oral Biology, 44, 835-842.
  • Stephens, R., & Tunney, R. J. (2004). Role of glucose in chewing gum-related facilitation of cognitive function. Appetite, 43, 211-213.
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