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Gary Wilson has mentioned that porn and masturbation is an addiction that negatively affect mental performance. Moreover, there is some "pseudo-science" claiming that abstaining from masturbation increases testosterone. I believe it increases serum testosterone levels after 7 day. I think that pornography negatively affects working memory.

Does abstaining from masturbation in men significantly change cognitive processes?

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(a) are you interested in the effect of sexual arousal during masturbation, immediately post orgasm, or in general on days with and without masturbation? (b) Are you only interested in cognitive performance or are you also interested in mood, personality, and so on? –  Jeromy Anglim Apr 18 '13 at 4:36
    
@JeromyAnglim: I am interested in all. –  guest43434 Apr 18 '13 at 16:02
    
Okay. I agree. They are all interesting questions. I guess questions on this site are most interesting to me when they have the right scope. My sense is that the mood versus cognitive questions and time frame would influence the answer you get to this question quite a bit. –  Jeromy Anglim Apr 19 '13 at 0:52

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There's one condition that is linked to negative cognitive effects after masturbation in a small subset of population, it is called Post Orgasmic Illness Syndrome (POIS):

The sufferer experiences mental symptoms, physical symptoms, or both. Common mental symptoms include cognitive dysfunction, intense discomfort, irritability, anxiety, craving for relief, susceptibility to nervous system stresses (e.g. cold), depressed mood, and difficulty communicating, remembering words, reading and retaining information, concentrating, and socialising.14 Physical symptoms include severe fatigue, mild to severe headache, and flu-like and allergy-like symptoms, such as sneezing, itchy eyes, nasal irritation, and muscle pain.3 Affected individuals may also experience intense warmth

So to answer your question - masturbation/orgasm does negatively affect cognition in people affected with POIS. There's another condition that may be similar : Post-coital tristesse

This may/may not be related, but prolactin, a hormone with multiple functions is elevated for multiple days in males after experiencing orgasm. From wikipedia:

The hormone[prolactin] counteracts the effect of dopamine, which is responsible for sexual arousal

I can't find a reliable source, but I read that the increase in prolactin lasts for up to 15 days following orgasm.

Looking at these dopamine and prolactin hormones on wikipedia, I saw that prolactin and dopamine suppress each other. From Dopamine article:

Dopamine is the primary neuroendocrine inhibitor of the secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland

If abstaining from masturbation does change hormone levels, then Prolactin and Dopamine (within specific parts of the brain) would be most likely targets.

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