Several studies discuss the damaged body schema of amputees and people suffering from CRPS. By damaged body schema I mean where the body their mind constructs doesn't match up with the body that is objectively there. Ie. limbs perceived as there or not there despite evidence, CRPS, extension/contraction of perceived limbs differing from reality.
The types of damage I'm most interested in are pain resulting or allegedly resulting from a disruption of the body schema itself such as phantom limb pain, autoscopy/out-of-body experiences and CRPS. Phantom limb sensation also interests me. Mostly, the important distinction I wish to draw is healing through the power of one's own volition or through the help of others, as diametrically opposed as I can get it.
What is the relative effectiveness of self-initiated versus therapy provided by others in repairing a damaged body schema?
I'm particularly interested in getting references to published research.