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There are many examples of animal language that involve vocal pattens or "grammar". For example, there is the the Bee dance, bird songs, whale songs, dogs. Bird vocalization includes both bird calls and bird songs. There are Parrots, hummingbirds and songbirds.

What are the most well-understood vocal animal languages?

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I imagine quantifying "well-understood" would be difficult. Does this list of well-studied non-primate animal languages meet your needs en.wikipedia.org/wiki/… –  Jeromy Anglim Feb 11 '13 at 6:55

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