So how much information is lost when one person is trying to convey these personal experiences with another person? Will actions carry more relevant data than words when explaining a personal experience?
I believe this really depends completely upon both what specific words you use to describe the experience / emotion as well as the experiences and memories of the person with whom you are speaking.
To convey an emotion well you must trigger a sense of empathy in the person you are speaking to. If you just say, "I feel happy", you're unlikely to convey nearly as much detail as if you describe that feeling in a way which triggers an emotional response in the listener.
As an example, compare the following two statements:
I am sad.
This is quite broad and will likely trigger a wide range of emotions in the person reading / hearing it, if any emotions are triggered at all.
O woe! O woeful, woeful, woeful day!
Most lamentable day. Most woeful day That ever, ever I did yet behold!
O day, O day, O day! O hateful day! Never was seen so black a day as
O woeful day! O woeful day!"
- William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, 4.5
This was just one quick example I could find. I'm sure if you peruse English Stack Exchange you could find much better examples, but my point is: the second paragraph conveys a lot more emotion than the first (contrived) statement. Therefore, to answer your question:
Is there any way to quantify the loss in translation of experiences?
Not really, not that I can see anyway. The way the experience translates just depends on far too many factors. What words did you use? What did the person you were speaking with interpret those words as? What are your shared experiences? What are the other person's memories and experiences like? Are you evoking a sense of emotion for them? If so, what memories are you drawing on? These factors, and a lot more, will determine what they feel when they hear your words.