I like your question. But I have to point out one thing - if you were to use documenting tools for all those tasks that you mentioned, you wouldn't have that much time left for your research. Sharing is great, but it takes time to do it properly, even with great tools.
I tried quite a few tools for documenting research, with an idea to boost my productivity, increase amount of recorded information and share the information for peers criticism. At the end of the day, only a tiny handful of those tools survived. The ones that survived were the ones that smoothly integrated with my daily routine, mainly in terms of time efficiency and interface simplicity.
For the lab notes, quick thoughts, brutal sketches, small brainstorms and rapid conference scribbles, the winner is a good quality paper notebook. I am personally a fan of Paperchase A5 brown recycled paper jorunal with wiro bound, which I always use with thin black ink Pilot pen. I know, OCD, but in a good way. Brown paper gives this vintage quality to my notes, which is somehow stimulating for me, and I like to come back to it and store it. I tried alternatives, but they could never beat brown paper wiro bound. Livescribe pen was too big, with ugly ink, and lacking smoothness of software exporting and it ended up being only a voice recorder, rarely tho. iPad note taking apps like Noteshelf or Penultimate with Pogo stylus really slowed me down, ugly writing again, and the battery always died in the middle of important seminar.
I frequently make a snapshots of my paper notebook with Evernote using iPhone. I actually make a snapshots of many other things using Evernote and this is definitely very simple and great storage/sharing platform, that works smoothly between desktop and mobile.
For the raw data - Dropbox. Now, also Google Drive, as you pointed, but Dropbox was first, with cloud-based, super-simple set-up storage solution. Dropbox was a big thing in my documenting toolbox as it removed the need for USB dongles. I could set up my experiment to save all the participant's raw data automatically in Dropbox after the experiment. I came back home - it was there waiting for me. When we collaborated, all the data was nicely shared in collective Dropbox folders without the need to shuffle e-mails or set up transfers with raw data.
Mendeley is a great tool for both bibliography management and sharing. Fantastic idea that turned out really big and beats the shit out of EndNote. Major thing I love in Mendeley is the ability to automate creation of bibliographies for LaTeX. This is an ultimate time saver.
Regarding posters there is this new poster repository F1000 which I haven't tried, but it looks promising.
For analysis code I found it tricky. Yes, you can put code in Github, but you can't compile it there. So there is this extra step when you have to organize your code on Github, describe it, etc. Never tried it because I prefer to spend time to learn more coding, but I don't say I won't try it in the future, when I will feel I have more valuable code to share with community.
For presentation I played with Prezi for some time which has a cool option to share your presentations easily. But ultimately I abandoned it, after people complained about motion sickness and after I felt I lost some key simplicity factor. I am having my eye on Beamer but there is no time now, so Keynote has to suffice.
Regarding discussion, chat, intelligent monologue - again it depends on what you want to achieve with it. Share a coding trick in analyzing some data? Discuss some exciting data? Or write a page about your documenting toolbox approaches? In all cases it requires time, so it's good to make sure that you don't do it to avoid doing something more important. Tools for online discussion and blogging are numerous. I like it here in Stack Exchange, because it's purely community driven and it's very easy to put together an overlong piece of rant on many many topics ;-)