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We would like to compare students from different education systems on the following variables:

  • tendency to actively participate on lessons
  • tendency to ask questions
  • tendency and experience in presenting own opinion
  • etc.

Questions

  • What studies provide examples of measuring these variables?
  • What methods are typically used to answer questions related to these variables?
  • What survey papers provide a good starting point?
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1  
What level of education are you interested in? primary, secondary, university? –  Jeromy Anglim Jun 25 '12 at 2:53
    
We've been thinking primary, but other are also possible. The effects should be visible on all levels, but are probably originated at the beginning of education. –  Oriesok Vlassky Jun 26 '12 at 7:45
    
@OriesokVlassky Hey Oriesok I tried my best to answer your question, does it work for you or am I completely off? If I helped you out and you are satisfied with my answer, if you could accept it that'd be awesome :) Otherwise I'm more than happy to try to help you solve it to your satisfaction. –  user3433 Aug 25 '13 at 15:25
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1 Answer

I recommend this one as it seems quite standardized and backed by many citations of it's use. It does seem to focus a lot on psychopathology at times, but there are many different versions of it that many different countries have made. I believe by studying these and adding in a few twists you can get the jist of why this has become such a widely accepted measure of child-age 16 measures of, well, alot of stuff.

It seems as if methods are already in place (even with instructions on how to interpret the results using common statistical software) to extrapolate almost anything you want/need based upon the questions here.

Thus, I think you're looking for the

STRENGTHS AND DIFFICULTIES QUESTIONNAIRE

(Their website is really, really helpful and to be fair I'm just copy and pasting most of it, lol.) Btw, it's here: http://www.sdqinfo.org/a0.html

What is the SDQ?

The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief behavioural screening questionnaire about 3-16 year olds. It exists in several versions to meet the needs of researchers, clinicians and educationalists. Each version includes between one and three of the following components:

A) 25 items on psychological attributes.

All versions of the SDQ ask about 25 attributes, some positive and others negative. These >25 items are divided between 5 scales:

1) emotional symptoms (5 items)
2) conduct problems (5 items)
3) hyperactivity/inattention (5 items)
4) peer relationship problems (5 items)
5) prosocial behaviour (5 items)

Note: 1) to 4) added together to generate a total difficulties score (based on 20 items)

The same 25 items are included in questionnaires for completion by the parents or teachers >of 4-16 year olds (Goodman, 1997).

A slightly modified informant-rated version for the parents or nursery teachers of 3 (and >4) year olds. 22 items are identical, the item on reflectiveness is softened, and 2 items >on antisocial behaviour are replaced by items on oppositionality. Questionnaires for self-completion by adolescents ask about the same 25 traits, though the >wording is slightly different (Goodman et al, 1998). This self-report version is suitable >for young people aged around 11-16, depending on their level of understanding and >literacy. In low-risk or general population samples, it may be better to use an alternative three->subscale division of the SDQ into 'internalising problems' (emotional+peer symptoms, 10 >items), 'externalising problems' (conduct+hyperactivity symptoms, 10 items) and the >prosocial scale (5 items) ( Goodman et al, 2010).

B) An impact supplement

Several two-sided versions of the SDQ are available with the 25 items on strengths and >difficulties on the front of the page and an impact supplement on the back. These extended >versions of the SDQ ask whether the respondent thinks the young person has a problem, and >if so, enquire further about chronicity, distress, social impairment, and burden to >others. This provides useful additional information for clinicians and researchers with >an interest in psychiatric caseness and the determinants of service use (Goodman, 1999).

C) Follow-up questions

The follow-up versions of the SDQ include not only the 25 basic items and the impact >question, but also two additional follow-up questions for use after an intervention. Has >the intervention reduced problems? Has the intervention helped in other ways, e.g. making >the problems more bearable? To increase the chance of detecting change, the follow-up >versions of the SDQ ask about 'the last month', as opposed to 'the last six months or this >school year', which is the reference period for the standard versions. Follow-up versions >also omit the question about the chronicity of problems.

Handouts:

You can find several different versions of the survey here:

http://www.sdqinfo.org/py/sdqinfo/b3.py?language=Englishqz(USA)

Scoring:

http://www.sdqinfo.org/py/sdqinfo/c0.py

Citations from SDQ Website Listed for Convenience, Title Scannability, and to Show the Scope of Who, Where, and How the SDQ has been used:

Goodman R (1999) The extended version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as a guide to child psychiatric caseness and consequent burden. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 791-801.

Goodman R, Scott S (1999) Comparing the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Child Behavior Checklist: Is small beautiful? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 17-24.

Smedje H, Broman J-E, Hetta J, von Knorring A-L (1999) Psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire". European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 8, 63-70.

Goodman R, Ford T, Simmons H, Gatward R, Meltzer H (2000) Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to screen for child psychiatric disorders in a community sample. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 534-539.

Goodman R, Renfrew D, Mullick M (2000) Predicting type of psychiatric disorder from Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) scores in child mental health clinics in London and Dhaka. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 9, 129-134.

Klasen H, Woerner W, Wolke D, Meyer R, Overmeyer S, Kaschnitz W, Rothenberger A, Goodman R (2000) Comparing the German versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-Deu) and the Child Behavior Checklist. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 9, 271-276.

Koskelainen M, Sourander A, Kaljonen A (2000) The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire among Finnish school-aged children and adolescents. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 9, 277-284.

Goodman R (2001) Psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1337-1345.

Mullick MSI, Goodman R (2001) Questionnaire screening for mental health problems in Bangladeshi children: a preliminary study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 36, 94-99.

Goodman R, Ford T, Meltzer H (2002) Mental health problems of children in the community: 18 month follow up. BMJ, 324, 1496-7.

Mathai J, Anderson P, Bourne A (2002) The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as a screening measure prior to admission to a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS). Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health, 1, Issue 3.

, (Zusammenfassung) Cury CR, Golfeto JH (2003) Strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ): a study of school children in Ribeirao Preto. Rev Bras Psiquiatr, 25, 139-45.

Glazebrook C, Hollis C, Heussler H, Goodman R, Coates L (2003) Detecting emotional and behavioural problems in paediatric clinics. Child: Care, Health and Development, 29, 141-149.

Malmberg M, Rydell AM, Smedje H (2003) Validity of the Swedish version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-Swe). Nord J Psychiatry, 57, 357-63.

Mathai J, Anderson P, Bourne A (2003) Use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as an outcome measure in a child and adolescent mental health service. Australasian Psychiatry, 11, 334-337.

Muris P, Meesters C, van den Berg F (2003) The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): Further evidence for its reliability and validity in a community sample of Dutch children and adolescents. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 12, 1-8.

van Widenfelt BM, Goedhart AW, Treffers PDA, Goodman R (2003) Dutch version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 12, 281-289.

Becker A, Hagenberg N, Roessner V, Woerner W, Rothenberger A (2004) Evaluation of the self-reported SDQ in a clinical setting: do self-reports tell us more than ratings by adult informants? European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13 Suppl 2, II17-24.

Becker A, Woerner W, Hasselhorn M, Banaschewski T, Rothenberger A (2004) Validation of the parent and teacher SDQ in a clinical sample. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13 Suppl 2, II11-6.

Goodman R, Ford T, Corbin T, Meltzer H (2004) Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) multi-informant algorithm to screen looked-after children for psychiatric disorders. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13 Suppl 2, II25-31.

Hawes DJ, Dadds MR (2004) Australian data and psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 38, 644-651.

Marzocchi, GM, Capron C, Di Pietro M, Duran Tauleria E, Duyme M, Frigerio A, Gaspar MF, Hamilton H, Pithon G, Simoes A, Therond C (2004) The use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in Southern European countries. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13 Suppl 2, II40-6.

Mathai J, Anderson P, Bourne A (2004) Comparing psychiatric diagnoses generated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire with diagnoses made by clinicians. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 38, 639-643.

Muris P, Maas A (2004) Strengths and difficulties as correlates of attachment style in institutionalized and non-institutionalized children with below-average intellectual abilities. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 34, 317-328.

Muris P, Meesters C, Eijkelenboom A, Vincken M (2004) The self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Its psychometric properties in 8- to 13-year-old non-clinical children. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 437-448.

Woerner W, Becker A, Rothenberger A (2004) Normative data and scale properties of the German parent SDQ. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13 Suppl 2, II3-10.

Woerner W, Fleitlich-Bilyk B, Martinussen R, Fletcher J, Cucchiaro G, Dalgalarrondo P, Lui M, Tannock R (2004) The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire overseas: evaluations and applications of the SDQ beyond Europe. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13 Suppl 2, II47-54.

Hintermair M (2006) Socio-emotional problems among hearing-impaired children - initial results of the German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-D). Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother, 34, 49-61.

Van Roy B, Groholt B, Heyerdahl S, Clench-Aas J (2006) Self-reported strengths and difficulties in a large Norwegian population 10-19 years : age and gender specific results of the extended SDQ-questionnaire. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 15, 189-98.

Ford T, Collishaw S, Meltzer H, Goodman R (2007) A prospective study of childhood psychopathology: independent predictors of change over three years. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 42, 953-61.

Goodman, R., Iervolino, A. C., Collishaw, S., Pickles, A. & Maughan, B. (2007) Seemingly minor changes to a questionnaire can make a big difference to mean scores: a cautionary tale. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 42, 322-7.

Palmieri PA, Smith GC (2007) Examining the structural validity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a U.S. sample of custodial grandmothers. Psychol Assess, 19, 189-98.

Achenbach TM, Becker A, Dopfner M, Heiervang E, Roessner V, Steinhausen HC, Rothenberger, A (2008) Multicultural assessment of child and adolescent psychopathology with ASEBA and SDQ instruments: research findings, applications, and future directions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 251-75.

Matsuishi T, Nagano M, Araki Y, Tanaka Y, Iwasaki M, Yamashita Y, Nagamitsu S, Iizuka C, Ohya T, Shibuya K, Hara M, Matsuda K, Tsuda A, Kakuma T (2008) Scale properties of the Japanese version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): a study of infant and school children in community samples. Brain Dev, 30, 410-5.

Van Roy B, Veenstra M, Clench-Aas J (2008) Construct validity of the five-factor Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in pre-, early, and late adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 1304-12.

Ford T, Hutchings J, Bywater T, Goodman A, Goodman R (2009) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Added Value Scores: evaluating effectiveness in child mental health interventions. British Journal of Psychiatry, 194, 552-8.

Giannakopoulos G, Tzavara C, Dimitrakaki C, Kolaitis G, Rotsika V, Tountas Y (2009) The factor structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in Greek adolescents. Ann Gen Psychiatry, 8, 20.

Goodman A, Goodman R (2009) Strengths and difficulties questionnaire as a dimensional measure of child mental health. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 400-3.

Janssens A, Deboutte D (2009) Screening for psychopathology in child welfare: the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) compared with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 18, 691-700.

Shahrivar Z, Tehrani-Doost M, Pakbaz B, Rezaie A, Ahmadi F (2009) Normative data and psychometric properties of the parent and teacher versions of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) in an Iranian community sample. J Res Med Sci, 14, 69-77.

Syed EU, Hussein SA, Azam SI, Khan AG (2009) Comparison of Urdu version of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) amongst primary school children in Karachi. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 19, 375-9.

Goodman A, Lamping DL, Ploubidis GB (2010) When to use broader internalising and externalising subscales instead of the hypothesised five subscales on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): data from British parents, teachers and children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 1179-1191.

Goodman A, Goodman R (2011) Population mean scores predict child mental disorder rates: validating SDQ prevalence estimators in Britain. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 100-8.

Goodman A, Heiervang E, Fleitlich-Bilyk B, Alyahri A, Patel V, Mullick MS, Slobodskaya H, Dos Santos DN, Goodman R (2011) Cross-national differences in questionnaires do not necessarily reflect comparable differences in disorder prevalence. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology.

Richter J, Sagatun A, Heyerdahl S, Oppedal B, Roysamb E (2011) The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) - self-report. An analysis of its structure in a multiethnic urban adolescent sample. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 1002-11.

Many times this test is used in an attempt to discover if there are any psychopathologies in a certain sample or group of children/adolescents. Don't let that fool you though - look at the sample survey sheet - you'll recognize that this can be used for nearly any purpose - which is part of the genius in it's design - which I believe you'll recognize. Look at the above research titles to see what sort of studies this type of survey has been used in - it has a large scope and there have been a wide variety of instances where this test has been applied.

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1  
What is the added benefit in copy pasting the entire citation list? Without knowing their context this is pretty much unnecessary duplication. –  Steven Jeuris Aug 25 '13 at 11:25
    
@StevenJeuris I agree to be honest, I suppose it was just more for convenience of having it in the answer already, despite it being easy to find on their website. I also suppose I didn't just want to list a single URL that I researched hard for to be my response for a bounty - heh. If you think it's better without the citations, I'll take em' away. However, you say "without knowing their context," I felt I explained the concept of the survey and provided a link to an example page. That's the context of the survey and the context of each citation is the citation itself. –  user3433 Aug 25 '13 at 11:32
    
Then again, what's the downside to having them here? It's not plagiarism and I'm giving them potentially free traffic/business - they're not going to complain. –  user3433 Aug 25 '13 at 11:36
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I think it is better without the citations, unless you can say for each one what they are there for. Just citing stuff doesn't make it a better answer. You need to explain why it is relevant. As to "without knowing their context", .. you could equally well paste the top 100 google results for SDQ. –  Steven Jeuris Aug 25 '13 at 11:44
    
1) Part of the initial question was "What studies provide examples of measuring these variables?" It seemed as if they wanted me to post some studies in the answer, so I did. 2) Part of the reason I included that list like that was to establish immediate credibility of the actual survey. Imagine if you saw the page without any citations at all...I'd just be recommending a website and saying "Here you can go here to see the citations." It's a marketing/credibility tactic in a way. 3) I would think most people can get a good jist of what the test is about by scanning the cite titles. –  user3433 Aug 25 '13 at 11:48
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